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1440-1449 (Principia Moderni IV Map Game)

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Archives List
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1400-1409
1410-1419
1420-1429
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1440-1449
1450-1459
1460-1469
1470-1479
1480-1489
1490-1499

1500-1509
1510-1519
1520-1529
1530-1539
1540-1549
1550-1559
1560-1569
1570-1579
1580-1589
1590-1599

1600-1609
1610-1619
1620-1629
1630-1639
1640-1649
1650-1659
1660-1669
1670-1679
1680-1689
1690-1699

1700-1709
1710-1719
1720-1729
1730-1739
1740-1749
1750-1759
1760-1769
1770-1779
1780-1789
1790-1799

1800-1809
1810-1819
1820-1829
1830-1839
1840-1849
1850-1859
1860-1869
1870-1879
1880-1889
1890-1899

1900-1909
1910-1919
1920-1929
1930-1939
1940-1949
1950-1959
1960-1969
1970-1979
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1990-1999

2000-2009
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1440

Ekkehard's printing press quickly gains fame by the patronage of the Abbess of Essen, and the knoweldge spreads throughout Western Germany, although few invest in it yet

Tadodaho refuses to agree to the peace terms of the Iroquois, as his tribe sees war as a necessary part of their way of life and economy.

A storm at sea destroys the ships of Chimu trying to trade with the Mayans.

The confederacy of clans in central Australia, although extremely thin in population due to the harsh conditions, establishes a meeting place at OTL Ayers Rock, calling themselves the Nation of Uluru.

With no opposition in the east, the Uzbek Sultanate sweeps over Iran and begins marching on the city of Esfahan.

Simply put, that's a "no." Revolts rarely ever (I can not think of an instance) leave their homeland once they've secured it. It is not only too risky from their perspective, but they simply have to hang onto what they've got to succeed. The Uzbeks will stay in their own lands, despite the alliance with the Coalition (as there is no repercussion for them not being involved). -Rexmod.

Sorry, I misunderstood the Uzbek event from last turn. -Nate

NOTE: If you're in the region of Northern and Western Europe (i.e., my region of modding), when you need a mod response don't type mod response, rather type "skyboi you're my only hope" so I know it's part of a region I should be modding. -Sky


  • The Gurkani Sultanate: Amir Ulugh Beg Mirza was proclaimed as the sultan of the Sultanate, starting a new era under his rule. The Gurkani population rose to about 24 million with the people flocking to cities like Herat, Isfahan, Merv, Aktau, Samarkand and Iskenderun; primarily due to their strategic position in the spice trade. The military was primarily composed of medium-to-heavy cavalry, composite bow, lance, mace, and sword. Heavy cavalrymen wore plated chain mail or metal lamellar armor, with their horses also wearing leather or metal lamellar barding. The infantry was equipped with daggers and swords to be utilised in close combat against the enemy and elephants as well as carts were used for the transportation of supplies. Cannons were constructed to serve as siege weaponry whilst experimental muskets were beginning to be developed. Naval bases were established at Iskenderun, Trabzon and Gamrun to establish the presence of the Gurkani fleet in the Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea and the Persian Gulf respectively, keen on controlling the sudden surge in piracy. The Gurkani Navy developed galleys and carracks to augment the smaller patrol fleets. Agriculture and commerce were at the Sultanate's forepoint, with wheat, rice and barley being amongst the largest produced crops. To prevent the Sultanate from ever getting hit by a major famine, the individual Amirs also engaged in the storage of food supplies, which would be utilized in case of famine or otherwise exported. Fishery was promoted as well as it helped in sustaining the fishery villages that were present along the coast, as well as the major port cities of Iskenderun, Basra, Gamrun, Aktau and Trabzon. The Sultanate mined large amounts of silver and gold, to serve as currency as well as ornaments and jewellery. Importance was also given on the development of proper roads for the merchants utilizing the trade routes through the Sultanate, with all caravans being armed and protected with a small detachment of guards. Meanwhile, the construction of educational madrassahs continued throughout the Empire, with the sultan keen on spreading education and knowledge amongst the populace of the Sultanate. The sultan sought to replicate the Islamic Golden Age that existed during the period of the Abbasids prior to the Mongol Invasion, and accordingly funded the teaching of Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, with Algebra, Geometry, Astronomy, Anatomy and Medicine being of prime importance. The Sultanate continued to expand its territories into the Caucasus, Siberia and the Persian Gulf islands. Zeeshan Beg is declared the new Crown Prince. Meanwhile, with the crushing defeat suffered by the Abbasid forces at Mosul, the body of the dead Caliph Al Najm is found amomgst the pile of corpses and it is subsequently beheaded, with the head being sent to Isfahan. Of the army of 360,000, 200,000 men are sent to fight against the Ottomans forces by intercepting them on the field or retaking Trebizond. The remaining forces remain stationed at Mosul, awaiting further orders.
    • Jalayirid Sultanate: Sultana Saima Daula continued her reign over the Sultanate. Acting as a vassal to the Gurkani Sultanate, she would only be answerable to the Gurkani Amir. The military and the navy were developed along the same lines as their Gurkani counterparts, with a major naval base constructed at Iskenderun where the Jalayirid fleet was also situated. Jalayirid authorities continue to work on the construction of a fleet at İskenderun, working side by side with Castilian authorities. The Jalayirid Sultana, Rukhsana Daula would continue to develop the trade route leading from his Mediterranean port of İskenderun to his Persian Gulf port of Basra, hoping to make it much more advanced and efficient.
  • In Aragon, the Royal Bank of Barcelona (Castilian: Banco Real de Barcelona or BRB) continues its tentative recovery from the economic meltdown that followed the dissolution of the Bank of St. George. The BRB's mercantile fleet is brought back into service, establishing trade routes with Aragon's partners, friends and allies. Although at first running a loss due to inflation, the BRB's trade with the Abbasid Caliphate is hoped to eventually become mutually beneficial for our countries. Meanwhile, reconstruction of Barcelona continues, and about a quarter of the city is complete. The Cathedral of St. James opens in Barcelona this year, and is larger and grander than its predecessor. Expansion of Aragonese harbours are complete, and naval expansion continues in earnest. Our Royal Armada's ship numbers grow to 370 this year. Research into improving our handgonnes begin. These weapons are now standard issue throughout the military, and it is hoped improvements will bring more accuracy and firepower into the handgonne. We seek to establish branches of the Royal Bank in French Corsica and Castilian Liguria.
    • The Caliphate agrees to trade.
    • Earldom of Desmond (Diplomacy): We ask for a trade deal and want to allow port access and establish Royal Banks in Cork. We also ask you to consider helping us unite Ireland and protect us from England.
    • Aragonese Diplomacy: We are more than happy to establish regional branches of the Royal Bank of Barcelona in Desmond, and trade is established between Aragon and Desmond. While we at this time can not guarantee full protection of Ireland, partially due to the massive distances between Iberia and Britain, as well as the existence of an alliance between Aragon and England, we will do our best to restrain English ambitions in Ireland with our influence as its ally.
    • Per the calculations in the algorithim and your self-reported population, your maximum navy size is 94.5, or 95 ships. Please keep this in mind, as anything above this limit is both against the rules/algo and would strain your economy.
  • Norway:Secret Seeing an increase in influence in Ireland with our acquistion of Breithyne we offer the state of Desmond an offer of Loose Vassalization under Norwegian protection along with offers to help them unite Ireland (with the exception of Breithyne for the time being). More coming tomorrow
    • NO VASSALIZATION OF IRELAND -sky
  • Earldom of Desmond: We refuse the offer of vassalisation from Norway as we realise that we should not antagonise England further (sorry, Belial, but KK gave me a better offer). We accept the Danish diplomacy and become the vassal of Denmark. We also build and expand the port at Cork to increase the trade in the Irish Sea. Due to immigration policies around 2000 people move to Cork while we continue to expand roads and infrastructure throughout the Earldom. We begin to build up a navy to protect us from a naval invasion as well as beginning to build a merchant fleet owned by the state. Across the Earldom, we begin building fortifications around our border while be begin concentrating on our army. Schools are being built to encourage literacy.We also seek out allies to protect us from English aggression (Contact me below)To boost our economy we offer port access and trade access, and banks in our lands from foreign countries (feel free to contact diplomatically). We declare war on the MacCarthy's and O'sullivan's to the south(Algo needed).We raise the troops and levies and begin training for war and move against the McCarthy's while three carracks are built and armed with cannon as well as one Birlinn to raid and blockade the McCarthy's.
    • Danish Dip: We offer Desmond Danish vassalization. If Desmond accepts they shall be spared from England for we are allies of England and we shall help Desmond in their conquests. All Desmond has to do is renounce their loyality to Norway and swear allegiance to Denmark.
    • Desmond Dip: We have refused the offer of vassalage from Norway and swear allegiance to Denmark. We also want you to join the war against the Irish tribes.
    • SCANDINAVIAN COUNTRIES CAN NOT VASSALIZE IRISH NATIONS!
  • The High Chief of the Wichita apologizes to the Iroquois for the lack of communication, however some internal issues were taking up much time (school). Chief Kinnekasus states that his firstborn son, Kiarsidia is more than happy to marry Tayanita of the Iroquois. In our period of isolation we have finished mapping and colonizing our new land left by the Crow. We also trained another seven legions, two legions are sent to the Iroquois in order to assist in their possible civil war. Copper clubs are now more popular with one in ten warriors owning one. We also established villages the the Lands-that-Touch-the-Sky (OTL Rockies). With our newfound power, we offer all tribes along the Cahokian River, the protection of membership in the Confederacy (Mod Response).
    • Iroquois Dip: We send our thanks along with Tayanita to live with her new family in Wichita. We also request any knowledge of copper in trade for land around OTL Lake St. Clair to set up trade posts.
  • The Kingdom of England: With the overwhelming victory in Scotland, the south of Scotland is annexed into the Kingdom of England, and the King Richard decides on how to act on the north. The north of Scotland has fallen into utter disorganization, King Richard, sets up a puppet government with a small council of Celtic leaders, to look over the Northern lands of Scotland, and they will be commanded to answer to the English Crown. England expands its army and economy. Military movements are spread over southern Scotland, and a main garrison is created in Glasgow, as the major military center of southern Scotland. Edinburgh is slowly rebuilt, and King Richard sends his loyal general, General William Scarlet to look over the policies, and setting up in southern Scotland, getting the newly conquered lands organized and suitably governed. With the complete annihaliation of Scottish troops, the English easily move in and respectfully incur force and begin ruling over the lands. King Richard sends thanks to Denmark, not being able to offer gold, so they can continue to build after the war, but cedes Aberdeen, Dundee, Orkney, and the northern Hebride Island, the Scottish mainland, and the rest of the Hebrides will be under the English Crown. With the economic collapse, England is hit hard, but is able to stay afloat, with their economic boom during the war, they haven't fallen completely into an economic demise. King Richard becomes careful with England's treasury and economics, having his closest advisors, sail him through the hard times after the trade-banking collapse. Meanwhile, the Kingdom of England offers The Kingdom of France a formal and official proposal for an Alliance. Terms: They will respect each other's claims, Crowns, Brittany, will remain a French vassal, and continue to be shared between the two nations, as a sort of bridge, Brittany will provide France with military troops, and continue to pay homage taxes. England sends positive intentions and relations and increases their positive standing with their two current allies: Aragon and Denmark. With the recent surge of activity in Southern Ireland, large quantities of troops are sent toward Wales and Ireland, and the garrison of Eastern English-Scottish shores. King Richard commands his navy, and Admiral Darrington to stop and refrain all Norweigan ships from passing through English waters. King Richard tells Norway, to release protection of the Earldom of Desmond, and to stay out of English manifests. Large amounts of troops are moved to the Eastern coast garrisons and sailed to Dublin.
  • Wales: The region of Wales, slowly builds themselves economically, trying to avoid the major effects of the recession Wales also expands their military rebuilding their garrison in Caernavon. Cardiff begins to expand, becoming more city-like. The Welsh navy moves away from the border of the English Channel, the ships move back to encircle the Scottish Isles. Large amounts of troops are sent to Dublin. And more garrison the Western coasts.
    • Dublin: As the war is won in Scotland, the Irish reserves sail back to Dublin, and the English troops make their way to regarrison the well-fortified city. Dublin expands economy to buffer the recession, and they expand the military to prepare for any Irish resistance or hostility from the other Irish states. Large amounts of English troops begin garrisoning inside Dublin, as they incur small raids on the westward Irish fiefdom.
    • Brittany (Personal Union with England): Brittany becomes the lead front of the newly proposed Alliance with the Kingdom of France. Brittany expands its economy in order to continue paying taxes to France and helping compensate England for any economic losses during their recent war. Brittany expands its navy in order to feud any pirates or bandits that would disrupt any bits of trade which are happening. In Brittany, English and French leaders meet to officially announce the Frankish-Anglo Alliance (NicDonalds response needed) Moderate amounts of troops are sent to Dublin. The navy is sent to blockade in the English channel.
    • Southern Scotland: With the recent victory for England over Scotland, Glasgow becomes Southern Scotland's main English garrison. Edinburgh is slowly rebuilt. Southern Scotland begins expanding its military and economy. The new lands take a toll from the economic recession. The economy is expanded hoping to help cushion the blow, and the military is expanded with troops centering in Glasgow and Edinburgh. General William Scarlet moves into the Castle in Edinburgh, and ruling over the lands militaristically, under King Richard's full trust and loyalty. General William Scarlet, sends gifts that are recovered from the spoils of war to the King. Small amounts of troops are sent to Dublin. And more garrison the Eastern coasts.
    • Northern Scotland (Vassal of England): King Richard establishes a puppet government of a council of Celtic-Scot Elders that will overlook the regions of Northern Scotland, and will answer to the English Crown. With the highly disorganized lands of the north, and the loss of the Scottish military, small militias and resistance is met when English troops begin occupying Northern England. General William Scarlet rides north to put down the small militias and resistance, and calls upon the Council of Elders to put down any more resistance which is met against English rule, that way to prove their loyalty, and if they do not, General Scarlet threatens them with "permanently removing" them from the council. General Scarlet constructs various outposts and forts over Northern Scotland, in order to control the populace, and maintain order. Northern Scotland expands their military and their economy, and all profit made is spent on mercenaries being bought and incorporated into the already established English military, General Scarlet sets Commander Hunte to train all new troops in Northern Scotland. Small amounts of troops are sent to Dublin. And more garrison the Eastern coasts.
    • Swedish Diplomacy: We ask the King of England to build Bank of St. Birgitta outposts in London, Edinbugh and Nantes.
  • Iroquois Confederacy: Chief Notaku calls back the braves in Nowadaga to prepare his army for war with Tadodaho. He sends 4000 braves to the western border forts and orders double patrols to be run along the St. Lawrence River and Bay. All civilians are asked to move inland for their protection. Chief Notaku sends another delegate to Tadodaho, stating that war is a part of all of our cultures, that does not mean this war is necessary. We all share the same Creator, because of this, blood should not be shed. We can both flourish as separate nations, all unified under the Great Tree of Peace. There have been decades of intermixing of our two great peoples, if we march to war, we shall shed the blood of our families. We ask once more, accept peace. (Mod response). Vassalization does not need to occur either. The retraining of braves continues, as well as the refortification of all outposts on the western border in preparation for potential invasion. The braves from Wichita are sent to help secure the Delaware border. No invasion of Tadodaho's lands is to be made. Chief Notaku works diligently to ensure the Confederacy stays united. He calls upon all chiefs to meet at the Great Tree of Peace in Nowadaga to discuss the future of the Iroquois people. A group of chiefs express their concerns about Notaku's vision of unity. To this, Notaku explains that it is not the will of The Creator and the Iroquois Constitution for Iroquois to spill Iroquois blood, and if they were to disband, blood will be shed. Oaths would also be broken if they were to disband. In regards to the few who wish to wage war, Notaku explains that war will always be a reality and there will always be an enemy to fight, but the enemy is not Iroquois.
  • In response to the joint Invasion of the Gurkani Sultanate by the Ottomans, the Abbasids, and the Uzbek rebels, Duke John II of Naxos send envoys to Castile, Ragusa, Milan, Russia, and Bohemia, reminding each of them that, under the Compact of Iskenderun, they are obligated to help the Gurkani Sultanate defeat the invaders. We invade Cyprus and the Morea, using the Naxian Navy of 15 galleys, 30 longships, five neves, and two biremes to siege Famagustra and invade Cyprus, while the Navaresse Company of 1000 men attack the Morea. Meanwhile, the Ducal Palace of Megali is completed, though the building of Megali is halted as we start the war effort. Duke John II will lead the siege of Cyprus himself, but, before he leaves, hears that Duchess Eleanor is pregnant again. He wishes he could stay for the birth of his child, but he must go to war instead.
  • Abbasid Caliphate: Al-Najm Al-Akbar, at the Battle of Mosul, channaled all he learned from his previous tutors into this decisive moment, giving an opening speech before his men before the battle. Using a cunning strategy, Al-Najm routed the Persian forces and took control of the city. Subsequent to the battle, Al-Najm at last restored Abbasid control to the traditional lands of Mesopotamia and Syria, just as in the Islamic Golden Age. Al-Najm entered triumphantly into the gates of Baghdad on a white horse, greeted warmly by all the Arabs of the city for their liberator from the Persians. But eager to return to the campaign, Al-Najm rounded up the men to recoup his losses and ventured father north against the city of Tabriz, the heart of Persia. This would entail the treacherous crossing of the Zaragos Mountains, causing the deaths of many men from the Caliphate armies in the process, but not affecting the Ottoman reinforcements. While encamping in the mountains, Al-Najm received word that the Ottomans were defeated at Trebzond, but were regrouping for another attack. Arpad ibn Ismail, stationed in Trebzond, sent a messenger to Russia, inviting him to invade Persia if he sends enough troops to take Tabriz. At last, the remaining 100,000 troops of the Caliphate arrived to besiege the city of Tabriz. In response to the invasion by Naxos, the Vizier of Egypt sends 3000 troops and 150 ships to defend Cyprus.
  • Chimu Empire: The Empire continues working on a symbol and picture method of writing down the Chimu language. Research into new weapons continues, and more of the army is now armed with sheilds and spears. The Empire continues officially sending settlers north to Chu-Ica, and by the years end it will grow to approximately 2793. The Chimu golden age continues, and expansion to the south at a steady pace continues, with canals and roads to the new regions being built as the Empire expands. More reed ships are sent north to trade with the Maya as people wonder what happened to the last group of ships. Work on maps continues, and a crude map of the western Americas coastline begins to perfected. The Emperor's son is now 16, and of age to rule when his father dies. He is trained in the latest weaponry, and his personal guard is given the latest in Chimu weaponry. The Emperor is now about 35 years old, and begins training his son in the artwork of Emperorhood, teaching him all he knows in case he dies unexpectedly.
  • Order of Knights Hospitaller: The Knights continue internal cost-cutting measures to minise the effects of the economic downturn. News reaches Rhodes of the new "printing press", and the Grand Master becomes keen to acquire a book produced by one to test its quality. In other news, the navy goes on exercises to train new recruits.
  • Kingdom of Tondo: With the naval victory in the Strait of Luzon and the land victory during the Japanese assault on Maynila, we offer the Japanese Empire peace on the following terms: Tondo will become a tributary of the Ming; all Japanese assets in the OTL Philippines become Tondo's, and Japan shall give Tondo 20 of their best ships (Mod Response) RajahGambang further consolidates his power, discreetely assigning political opponents to far-flung provinces of Tondo or to Tondo's vassals of Ma-I and Pangasinan, or to colonization attempts in Palawan, Busuang and Samar. The government of Tondo can be roughly described as a Federal Monarchy, with each province ruled by a council with members proportionate to the province's population. Rajah Gambang invites the Huang of Pangasinan, his daughter and Ma-I's regency council, and officials from every province to draft something akin to an OTL constitution, namely, the Saligang Batas ng Tondo at Nasasakupan Nito (Constitution of the sovereign Kingdom of Tondo and all its holdings and possessions). As Maynila is one of the richest cities in South East Asia, it is now high-time to create a lasting legacy for it. A series of bridges and canals connecting the Pasig and Tagik (OTL Taguig) Rivers and all their tributaries to provide acquatic transportation, ease movement of goods, and simply build bridges above the waterways to ease the transportation of people in the Greater Tondo Province (OTL Metro Manila). To prevent problems of income inequality and unequal development, selected families in the capital are given incentives of food and gold to relocate to developing towns and cities in Cavite, Romblon and Samar. A road network has already connected Tondo Province to Cavite, and a series of roads from southeastern and southern Luzon to Pangasinan has already began construction. Tondo metallurgical capabilities increase as blast furnaces and ironforges are built all around the state. The port of Maynila is further expanded, with the navy increasing by 25 small ships and seven war junks. Trade with nearby states continue. Tondo continues expansion in Samae, Palawan and Busuanga. 2000 additional soldiers are trained Diyang Kalangitan refuses to seat beside representatives from the local Japanese merchants during the drafting on the constitution, and representatives from Ma-I and Pangasinan also refuse to sit beside or near Japanese nationals. Gambang orders 300 ships to move to patrol the Visayas archipelago, mainly to protect the trade routes, and secretly to intimidate Cebu.
    • Huangdom of Ma-I: With Tondo's grace, Ma-I settles the western part of Busuanga Island, and dedicates 100 citizens there. Li Han thrives as a cultural and financial capital of Ma-I, while Beigang immediately becomes the second port of Tondo, and conducts trade regularly with nearby nations.
    • Huangdom of Pangasinan: With Tondo's grace, Pangasinan expands into Central and Northern Luzon, attempting to assimilate the mountain and Igorot tribes located nearby to access the massive agricultural treasure in the Banaue Rice Terraces and the farmlands of Central Luzon. The administrative capital city, Pangasinan, begins construction of a road connecting it to Maynila. Blast furnace construction continues, and a small defense fleet of 15 ships is allotted by Tondo to Pangasinan. Pangasinense traders report sightings of small islands west of Luzon, and scouts are sent by Pangasinan to verify their claims.
  • Ahom Kingdom: In concordance with his father's desire to phase out the cavalry khels, Susenphaa orders the phasing out of one cavalry khel to be replaced by one more khel of archers. The remaing calary khels are equipped as light cavalry, to scout and act as skirmishers. More extensive military tests are made on the efficiency of artillery with different types of shot. Also, each khel of archers and arquebusiers is trained to fire in groups of 25 at a time so there is a constant rain of projectiles on the enemy. The Ahom arquebusiers are trained to be perfect at aiming and very swift in reloading.
  • Sweden: As the Mediterranean trade collapses, the Bank of St. Birgitta makes a bold move and asks to establish outposts in London, Nantes, Edinburgh (England), Oldenburg, Stettin (Brandenburg), The Hague, Brugge, Antwerp (Burgundy), Riga, Danzig (Teutonic Order) and Calais. (Mod Response for Oldenburg plox). We ask Denmark to open up an associate filial in Dundee and restore the Aberdeen branch of the bank. The bank constructs outposts in Abo and Uppsala. We start building the University of Uppsala, to spread knowledge in our lands. We thank the Archbishop of Cologne for his help in implementing the Adelphinian Reforms. We apologize to Russia for the diplomatic insult we might have caused, and continue to propose the help for a port. We continue promoting the lumber, iron, copper and wool trade throughout Europe. We continue expanding North, settling more people northward and Christianizing the pagan Lappish and FInns. We accept Pskov's offer. We propose to the Count of Zeeland to reduce taxes in Middelburg, as to make the city more attractive to traders (MOD response). We do the same with Visby.
    • The Count of Zeeland is reluctant, but reduces them, although not by much.
    • Cologne Dip: The Archbishop of Cologne is unclear on what exactly the apology from Sweden is for, besides with respect to general delays in diplomacy, but gratefully accepts Sweden’s help in building a port to generally further their trade relationship.
    • Cologne player... (I don't know who you are), it was a typo. I meant to say that to Russia. ~Wolves
    • Just an FYI, Zeeland is a Burgundiam possession, and has been since the conquest of Holland, as it was part of the Hollander crown. Also taxes are already low due to Burgundian encouragement of trade. -Guy
    • I looked on the map ... it's free by what the map says. Sorry for everything. Please open bank posts in your ports. ~Andy
  • Mogadishu: The nation's income continues to grow, both from increased tariffs and from the Royal Trade Fleet. Our manufacturers expand and make more money. We further expand toward the Jubba River, as canals, dikes and ditches are being built. The land surrounding the Jubba-Shebelle Rivers becomes more fertile. 10,000 local tribesman and foreign settlers became citizens of our nation last year due to our policies of land reclamation and immigration attraction. We built cannons in our Chinese furnaces, which we received from China from Zheng He's trip. We send some money to Gurkanis to show our sympathy of their plight.
  • Duchy of Thuringen: The city guard continues to defend the capital city of Erfurt. Our military grows by adding more recruits each year. We continue to trade again with our neighboring states. Farming goes well in our nation this year. The healthy population continues to increase by 3% each year. Karsten's improvement in the training area is continuing to show off. Our economy tries to rebuild itself from the collapse of 1439. We invest in Ekkehard's printing press, thinking it will help boost our economy of our nation back to what it used to be in 1438 before the collapse.
  • Bohemia: Wenceslaus V, in effort to revitalize the economy, founds the Bank of Prague. The bank requests to open branches in the major HRE countries: Burgundy, Brandenburg, Milan, Austria, and the Teutons. A branch in Hungary is created in Buda. The Bank of Prague begins to try to put affiliates in the smaller HRE countries as well. Bohemia's membership in the Compact of Iskenderun gives them an edge over trade, as they are getting exclusive trade from the east. Bohemia's key position in central position also makes it nearly impossible for cross-continental land trade not to go through Bohemian lands at some point. Wenceslaus V begins funding this project with silver from the silver mines located in the Sudetes. We also begin to mine in the Carpathians, looking for valuable minerals. (Mod Response) We begin to create forts along the border with the Ottoman Empire. We declare war on the Ottoman Empire, citing religious war as our casus belli! We send 24,000 men across the border into Hungary. We leave 24k men in our nation to defend and be reserves if need be. The army marches not too far to the city of Belgrade, and commences the Siege of Belgrade. We crown the ruler of Milan as King of Italy this year.
  • Grand Boyardom of Russia: Seeing the opportunity ahead, Russia joins the war against the Gurkanids, marching into their territory. Stuff happens. Will edit later.
  • Benin: The imperial census for the year of 1440 has revealed a considerable increase in the general population from 39 million to 41 million in the last decade, and a subtle shift in Bini from the overpopulated Niger Delta region to the most spacious lands of the Malian Sahel. The city of Edo's population is found to have increased from 250,000 to almost half a million inhabitants, while the city of Eko has increased to more than 200,000 residents. Because of this increase in the number of subjects. a massive expansion of the Benin Imperial Army is made by the Oba, who defying the will of his war council, extends the number of warriors under his control from 396,000 to 835,500, creating 45 additional ogun for the Imperial Army, and 458 fipamo consisting of 358 ewu (infantry) and 80 agbo (cavalry) formations for the Metropolitan Army, while keeping Imperial Guard's numbers at 25,000. Te Benin Imperial Navy itself receives fifteen new akakan vessels as well. When asked how he would pay for this, the Oba stated that the tax on income would be increased by 2% from the previous 8% to 10%. With the new imperial budget of 2.8 billion mina, the military's budget would be increased from 317.5 million mina to 948.9 million mina, thus making up a third of the state's total budget for the year. Prince Uwaifiokun and Iyase Ezeani warn Oba Isikhuan that the ballooning size of the military is something that he should avoid, as the state can not afford to continue spending huge amounts of money on the military as it grows simply to sate the desires of the Oba. Elsewhere, expansion into West Africa continues, with 10,000 kilometers settled by the Bini, with the full backing of five ogun sent by the Oba to back the land expansion. Military colonies are built by the army for the warriors, helping the Bini further establish a foothold in the region. More and more of the imperial population identifies as Bini and Kuzir, as the indoctrination of children now becoming adults continues, and as certain privileges offered by the state such as protection under the law and access to public utilities are reserved for those adhering to Kuzir religion. With few external threats and an increase in manpower, the military forces in Benin's Sahel provinces begin a massive infrastructure project to create a series of roads and canals throughout the region. The largely underdeveloped lands are targeted by the state as a new breadbasket for the western provinces, and as much as two-thirds of the state's remaining budget for the year is devoted to the project. Fortifications for the border with Jolof are built, public baths and esuku are constructed in newly rebuilt towns in line with Bini laws and traditions, and expansion of the port city of Ziguinchor continues. Also, in line with the laws of the Oba, all cities have a single public school all children are required to go to if they are able. The Oba, like father, is interested in the patronage of the arts and sciences, and wishes to expand the number of literate Bini in his nation as much as possible as part of the Kuzir faith as well. In East Africa, expansion of the trade by the Bini merchants continues, as the amount of gold, silver, and precious gems brought back to Benin in exchange for finished goods increases. The Bini merchants increase their presence in the region so much so, that the blue robes of the merchant caste of Benin can be found in almost every Swahili city-state in East Africa. Another 60,000 male Malian slaves are shipped off to the Ottoman Empire as per the arrangement established between the Oba and the Sultan. Seeking to expand his nation's foothold in the west, Oba Isikhuan orders 16 ogun, along with 36 ewu and 25 agbo for a total of 124,000 infantry and 12,500 cavalry, into Jolof to pacify the nation and bring it into the empire by force. 15 akakan and 30 other vessels are sent to blockade the coast of Jolof.
  • Bahmanids: (Scraw said I can't support the Gurkanis militarily, so I'm just going to presume my intervention never happened.) Monetary support is sent to the Gurkanis to assist against their enemies. The port of Karachi is upgraded to compete with the Omanis in Gujarat. We continue to spread anti-Arab rumors among the Gujaratis, and hire any bandits in the area, as well as the small number of rebels, to attack Omani troops and positions, as well as burning fields (to decrease Oman's revenue from the province). The rebels/bandits are given safe haven in Bahmanid territory, forcing the Omanis to spend more and more money on more and more troops, while our well-paid isolationist advisors in the Omani court continue to push the unfeasibility of their colony to their leader.
    • A Note: I have no intention of expelling the Omanis from Gujarat with these bandits and rebels. Rather, I only wish to make their colony an expensive and unprofitable one.
  • Portugal: Afonso V declares to his court his desire to reinvigorate the military forces of Portugal in light of the hostile moves made by Castile against Genoa and Milan. After hearing of the atrocities committed by the Castilians, Afonso decrees that Portugal shall open its arms to refugees from Genoa, making special provisions to bring into his lands the Genovese merchants and shipbuilders who have lost everything in Genoa, and now seek a new home elsewhere. Also given aid in moving to Portugal are the owners of the Bank of St. George, whom Afonso has deemed a vital source of power that he can not ignore as they wonder Europe in search of a place to live. With the invitation extended to the Genovese people to come to Portugal, Afonso devotes his attention to another issue, the dire state of the navy. With the ineffectual rule of his predecessors, Portugal's navy has been allowed to decay and rot as the Castilians and Aragonese have outpaced the Portuguese militarily. At the urging of Henry the Navigator, drawing from his own coffers, the King of Portugal invests greatly into the rebuilding of the fleet of ships sitting the port of Lisbon, and orders the expansion of the city of Faro to accommodate the Genovese shipbuilders and their shipyards, as they devote themselves to the construction of the fleet King Afonso desires. Ten ships are added to the navy of Portugal, while twenty of the ships rotting away in the ports of Portugal are refurbished to serviceability, increasing the size of the navy to 35 ships total. Development on a new type of ship by the Genovese begins under the oversight of Prince Henry, who seek to create a vessel large and powerful enough to defend their new homeland from the Castilians. Following a census by the king, it is discovered that Portugal's population sits at 1,043,274 total inhabitants. With this information, the army of Portugal is completely rebuilt with an army of 20,865 able-bodied men ready to serve in the king's military. Though this is tiny compared to the forces of Castile, it will most certain serve as a bulwark and deterrent to any potential invasions by the Castilians. Also in order to combat the Castilian threat expansion of the walls and fortifications are made throughout the country. Elsewhere, traders from Portugal sail southward in search of new lands and trading opportunities. They come across the lands of Senegal, where the Jolof and Bini are active. Loans of the Bank of St. George are offered throughout Europe in order to provide stabilization.
    • Benin Diplomacy: Benin welcomes the Portuguese to our lands. Even though we have been present in Europe as merchants, we believe that a more direct trade route of sorts would be of benefit to both of us. We wish to establish a trade pact in which you shall be given favorable status as a trading partner and basing rights out of our ports, allowing you access to our ports for food, fresh water and rest for your crews. Furthermore, we shall agree to lowered tariffs on Portuguese goods, though in exchange for access to the Portuguese markets for Bini merchants and favored trade status in Portugal, though not exclusive between our two countries. Is this satisfactory to the Portuguese throne?
    • Portugal Dip: Henry the Navigator agrees to this agreement. For negotiations a full delegation lead by, Henry the Navigator, is sent down to Benin City in which after words those terms are agreed upon. Portugal also requests some sort of a military alliance.
    • Benin Diplomacy: This we agree to accept.
    • I'm posting on Oct's behalf as per his request to do so. ~Viva
    • OK, so maybe a half dozen owners of the Bank of St. George escaped the Rape of Genoa, and that is being generous. Then, let's presume half of them decided to relocate to Portugal, instead of the more plausible Barcelona, Florence, Pisa, or Venice (all of which with functioning, established banks). They have zero net worth, as practically all of Europe has defaulted on their loans to this failed bank, and the collateral was captured by Castile. The bank had collapsed, and now its attempting to stabilize the very region it brought chaos to? I don't think so. -Rexmod
    • Prime example of a mod modding in his region rebuttals coming soon. ~'Oct
  • Croatia: The Kingdom of Croatia, after nearly three and a half centuries of union with Hungary is finally free. The Sabor prepares laws to ensure such things do not ocurr again and Rinaldo is more or less forced to co-operate. In exchange for more power to the Sabor, King Rinaldo Drački gains the loyalty of the few noble families left in Croatia after the Bloody event in Križevci during the reign of the Sigismund the Bloody, as he is known now in Croatia.
    • Republic of Ragusa: The republic begins recovering from the crisis which is fairly easy considering the lack of trade republic in the Mediterranean. The government is being adjusted after the vassalization by Croatia.
      • Duke John II of Naxos sends an envoy to Ragusa, reminding them that they must help the Gurkani Sultanate in their time of need, according to the terms of the Compact of Iskenderun.
  • Ottoman Sultanate: The Sultanate begins to work on regrouping and send 60,000 to Trezbond along with a navy of 300 ships to meet the enemy in the middle on the coast line.(this algo) while our army of 20,000 will walk with the Caliphate army. (If in this algo) our army falls back to Ankara burning everything the Thrimuds can use along with calling for all men to join the army. Slaves from Oba are sent to madrsas to learn Quran (due to the slaves being a small number)and to teach poor people how to read Arabic and Quran. Blocky if you see me on chat PM.
  • Cologne: Archbishop Dietrich II, along with Abbess Margarete of Essen, proposes a contract with Ekkehard Stelzner, in support of his great invention: they will assist Stelzner in distributing Bibles and other religious books throughout all states involved with Adelphinian Reforms (at the least), using their now significant influence in those countries, in return for Stelzner agreeing to give the Archbishopric a small percentage of royalties from the sale of every printed book, indefinitely. Stelzner happily agrees; someone significant is investing in him and his crazy idea! Accordingly, both countries (Cologne and Essen) begin to distribute these Bibles to every religious organisation in wider Cologne and Westphalen. By the end of the year, they are being sent to churches in Berg, Mark and Julich.
    • Essen: Abbess Margarete of Essen assists Dietrich II with the printing press as above. However, she is growing old and eventually becomes bed-ridden. Despite the other canonesses’ insistence that she sleep, she celebrates the birth of Christ that year by getting out of bed in her very ill state, walking down the street with a printed German Bible in hand, and going right into the festivities. Her presence amasses a small congregation of people who listen to her speak about the grace of God with her last burst of energy and eventually fall silent, dying peacefully with a smile on her face as she falls back against a door that happens to have one of her posters on it. The image is burned into the mind of one of the people she talked to; he goes home and begins to paint the scene. The next day, the canonesses hold a vigil in Margarete’s honour; however, they will refrain from electing a new abbess until the next year. In the meantime, Prioress Hildegard runs the abbey and assists Stelzner and Dietrich.
  • Kingdom of France: Louis XI participates in talks at Brest with the new King of England Richard III. At the discussions Louis comes to a compromise and negotiates an alliance with the English. With this Louis decides to put away their nearly sixty years of open hostility against the English crown and the war that happened twenty years ago. It is promised that as long as the King of England honors the basic feudal contract (with providing Breton troops and taxes), the Duchy will remain under France, but in an English personal union, and the French and English will maintain an alliance between their kingdoms. Xaintrailles and La Fayette's deaths at Turin are honored throughout the kingdom. A small royal marriage is also secured with the Milanese duchy to deter war between the two nations. Louis XI uses the Taille, Milanese concessions, and feudal taxes toward providing building projects throughout France to reinvigorate the French economy. This includes many projects in Paris so the city stays as one of the most important and influential in Europe. The development of Chauleaux slows, but Louis ramps up the trade with the Caliphate with their largely unaffected economy. Louis XI continues to rebuild and restructure the navy, making it more effective and keeping it up-to-date. Corsican traders are welcomed to stay on their island.
  • Emma of Denmark: The year 1440 has fallen upon humanity, a new year and a new decade, but I do not celebrate for my husband Crown Prince Mikkael of Norway has not responded to my plea of forgiveness, and I fear that Mikkael has not forgiven me and he still holds malice, hate and anger toward me in his heart and I am extremely scared, so Eric and I remain in Copenhagen, and Eric turns four years of age. I fear that Mikkael will invade Denmark from land, so I continue Denmark's army focus, Danish Scotland is integrated, and they begin to trade with England and Ireland.
  • In the Duchies of Milan and Savoy, Niccolò Maria Visconti makes a trip to Prague after the addition of Montferrat to his realm to deliver an ultimatum to his liege: grant the Iron Crown of Lombardy, as King of Italy, to the Visconti family or face a war of seccession from the Empire. With the Emperor issuing a declaration that Duke of Milan should become King of Italy, Niccolò Maria travels back to Milan, to have the Archbishop of the city crown him King using the historic Iron Crown of Lombardy. Thus is instated, as a single political entity, the Kingdom of Italy. The leading mercantilists at the University of Florence propose a plan to restore the greatness of the Italian economy: by using Italian resources to recreate a grand navy. This plan employs thousands of Italians to great success, but the intensity of the depression continues to be felt in land-locked cities like Florence. To this end, the leading Albizzi clan announces an even larger set of arts projects. In Milan, the newly crowned King focuses on the creation of textile and iron workshops. He even begins to loosen restrictions placed upon production by the guilds, but all craftsmen must still belong to a guild. We also welcome in Genoan/Corsican exiles and refugees into our nation with open arms. We also hear about the movable type discovered in Western Germany, and leading religious clerics express an interest in acquiring the secrets from the Abbess of Essen (PLAYER RESPONSE).
    • Duke John II of Naxos sends an envoy to Milan, reminding them that they must help the Gurkani Sultanate in their time of need, according to the terms of the Compact of Iskenderun.
  • In the Kingdom of Naples, which was never as saturated in the banking culture as Italy proper, recovery has already begun to settle in throughout the realm. Mary Anjou, who reigns from the city of Naples, announces that she shall focus on the nation's navy, borrowing heavily from Genovese plans and Milanese ones. Also, the unrepentant supporters of René of Bar's claim are tried and found guilty in a court of law, and are therefore sentenced to death. The division of the realm into six duchies has somewhat reduced the rampant feudalism, while not angering too many nobles.
  • Papal States: The Papacy is displeased with the current events that have taken place in Italy, and privately confers with the pope to formulate a grand strategy and determine future steps. For now, all that is done is to see that the Papacy's garrisons are well manned and maintained and that the unity of the present Church is upheld in thought and deed.
    • In Constantinople, the Papal commander continues to assist in repairs and fortifications. Privately, he worries he may soon have to withdraw his forces and return to Italy.
  • China: The Chinese Emperor initiates a massive campaign of infrastructural improvement as part of a plan to boost the national economy.

1441

With the Duke of Milan being crowned King of Italy, many prominent Italians write a petition to him demanding that now there is no cause, legitimate or otherwise, that should bind the Italian city-states to the Holy Roman Empire that they detest. German concerns are believed to exist but are currently mute.

Small rumblings of discontent appear within the Mayapan League over apparently trivial matters. The incident remains small at the present time.

The Aztec Empire begins a major drive south against the Zapotec kingdoms, conquering a sizeable territory.

King’s College at Cambridge is founded.

Two Ethiopians arrive in Rome to discuss a potential merger of the Catholic and Coptic churches. While this effort fails, it is the first major example of Ethiopian involvement in mainstream European affairs.

ATTENTION TO THE PLAYERS: Recently we have noticed that people have been stating that they have considerable numbers of firearms and cannon, which does not align with the current time period. It is strongly advised for people who have done this to significantly reduce their numbers in this regard. You will regret it if you do not. 'For reference, at the start of the 1500s, a full 60 years from now, only 10% of any Western European army (the most advanced in warfare) was armed with early firearms. [1]


Just a note: I would say that you really should mention how Mattew Corvin's Black Army is the "Exception that Proves the Rule" as 25% of his infantry used firearms in case anybody brings it up...-Lx (leave me a message)Azarath Flag
  • The Gurkani Sultanate: Sultan Ulugh Beg Mirza continued his rule over the Sultanate. The Gurkani population rose to about 24 million with the people flocking to cities like Herat, Isfahan, Merv, Bukhara, Tabriz and Iskenderun; primarily due to their strategic position in the spice trade. The military was primarily composed of medium-to-heavy cavalry, composite bow, lance, mace, and sword. Heavy cavalrymen wore plated chain mail or metal lamellar armor, with their horses also wearing leather or metal lamellar barding. The infantry was equipped with daggers and swords to be utilised in close combat against the enemy and elephants as well as carts were used for the transportation of supplies. Cannons were constructed to serve as siege weaponry whilst experimental muskets were beginning to be developed. Naval bases were established at Iskenderun, Trabzon and Gamrun to establish the presence of the Gurkani fleet in the Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea and the Persian Gulf respectively, keen on controlling the sudden surge in piracy. The Gurkani Navy developed galleys and carracks to augment the smaller patrol fleets. Agriculture and commerce were at the Sultanate's forepoint, with wheat, rice and barley being amongst the largest produced crops. To prevent the Sultanate from ever getting hit by a major famine, the individual Amirs also engaged in the storage of food supplies, which would be utilized in case of famine or otherwise exported. Fishery was promoted as well as it helped in sustaining the fishery villages that were present along the coast, as well as the major port cities of Iskenderun, Basra, Gamrun, Aktau and Trabzon. The Sultanate mined large amounts of silver and gold, to serve as currency as well as ornaments and jewellery. Importance was also given on the development of proper roads for the merchants utilizing the trade routes through the Sultanate, with all caravans being armed and protected with a small detachment of guards. Meanwhile, the construction of educational madrassahs continued throughout the Empire, with the sultan keen on spreading education and knowledge amongst the populace of the Sultanate. The sultan sought to replicate the Islamic Golden Age that existed during the period of the Abbasids prior to the Mongol Invasion, and accordingly funded the teaching of Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, with Algebra, Geometry, Astronomy, Anatomy and Medicine being of prime importance. The Sultanate continued to expand its territories into the Caucasus, Siberia and the Persian Gulf islands. The sultan agrees to a white peace with Russia.
    • Jalayirid Sultanate: Sultana Saima Daula continued her reign over the Sultanate. Acting as a vassal to the Gurkani Sultanate, she would only be answerable to the Gurkani Amir. The military and the navy were developed along the same lines as their Gurkani counterparts, with a major naval base constructed at Iskenderun where the Jalayirid fleet was also situated. Jalayirid authorities continue to work on the construction of a fleet at İskenderun, working side by side with Castilian authorities. The Jalayirid Sultana, Rukhsana Daula would continue to develop the trade route leading from his Mediterranean port of İskenderun to his Persian Gulf port of Basra, hoping to make it much more advanced and efficient
  • Alarmed by Portugal's emerging banking industry, the Royal Armada of Aragon begins patrolling the waters off the east coast. We stop ships randomly for inspection, and inform those which are found to be en route to Portugal and whose crews are Genoese that Portugal is a poor country in which finding one's fortune will be next to impossible. Thereafter, these refugees are offered subsidised accommodation in Barcelona and enticing high pay if they in return agree to provide their services as employees of the Royal Bank of Barcelona, or, if they are shipbuilders, to the Royal Armada. On land, stricter border controls are enforced, and all Genoese people whose ultimate destination is determined to be Portugal are blocked from proceeding through Aragonese territory and then offered the same prospects. As a result, the influx of Genoese refugees into Portugal drops. We encourage Castile to enforce similar policies, as it is in both our interests to prevent Portugal from profiting from the work of the Genoese.
    • You keep on forgetting how fluid trade and everything is. You can not stop ships from moving through your waters for no reason. Genovese blames you among others for the fall of their country so would be majorly inclined not to go to Aragon, a major historic enemy. The only nation that I believe Genovese refugees would be comfortable going to is Portugal. That is because of its lack of involvement in the war, a need for good admirals that have already been exploring similar lands, a government willing to finance the expeditions, and it also being one of the few places not hit by the economic crisis. ~Oct
    • That's rather funny of you to say, because Aragon literally had nothing to do with the dissolution of Genoa. Portugal, as the mods have said, is an implausible hiding place for Genoese refugees because it is just so far away. A more plausible place to flock to would be Barcelona because it already has established industries and infrastructure. As one of the most modern constructed cities in Europe, it would be a logical place to go because of its relative cleanliness and appeal. Furthermore, like you have said previously, is private enterprise not independent of geopolitics? The potential to make lots of money because of Aragon's willingness for concessions in return for employment would far outweigh any sentiment the Genoese might feel against Aragon, which would in itself be implausible because, once again, Aragon had nothing to do with the fall of Genoa. ~Tim
    • In this case, Aragon is deliberately seizing Genovese by force, and word of that would make it back to Italy. Also, it is entirely plausible for Genovese to move to Portugal at the invitation of the King of Portugal, as when Spain began to force Jews to convert to Christianity and expel many of them, the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire actually invited many to Turkey, and most moved to the Ottoman lands as a result of that invitation. It is entirely possible for large numbers of people to move to lands that open their arms to them, and not take them by force. Sky has agreed with this assessment, so I see no reason it should be an issue. ~Viva
    • Yes, but note that Aragon sits in between the rest of the Mediterranean and the rest of Spain. In this position, Aragon has the capability to block anyone from entering Portugal. Rex agrees with me that it is far more plausible for the Genoese to move to Barcelona instead of seeking refuge in Portugal. ~Tim
    • Rex agrees to a lot of stuff, not all of it plausible. Remember, you are allied to the nation that burnt their city to the ground, and actively support them politically. There will be lots of animosity toward Aragon for being the strong ally of the nation that destroyed their society and nation, and actively hunts down and kidnaps their people and puts them to work against their will in Barcelona. ~Viva
    • Your latter argument is completely false, and I am not forcing anyone against their will. I was told to tone down the aggressiveness of my actions, and I have retconned my turn. Please read through it again before shooting more blanks at my turn. ~Tim
    • Furthermore, I don't see why the Genoese would of all places flee to Portugal, instead of more accessible locations such as Germany, Greece or even Africa. Portugal in its current state has extremely little business potential. From the point of view of a merchant, I really don't see the benefits of moving to Portugal, other than the fact that it so happens to be controlled by the same person who played as Genoa. ~Tim
    • Removing the part where you were kidnapping Genovese civilians from boats and saying that because it's gone it didn't happen, doesn't mean that I was wrong. You wrote it down the first time, and I read your turn hence I reason I'm commenting on it. Just because you don't like where the people are going, doesn't mean they can't go there. There are plenty of times people have left one side of Europe to live in another, and the Jews following their expulsion from Spain, didn't just stop in France or Italy because they were closer. No, they kept going to Turkey because the ruler of Turkey invited them there and protected them, just as Portugal is doing for the Genovese. I don't care how close Aragon is. People have memories and they have priorities. They aren't stopping in Aragon just because it is closer, because it is allied to the point of inseparability to the very nation that destroyed their homes. All the arguing in the world will not change the image you have in the minds of the Genovese people. ~Viva
  • Chimu Empire: The Empire continues working on a symbol and picture method of writing down the Chimu language. Research into new weapons continues, and more of the army is now armed with shields, swords and spears. The Empire continues officially sending settlers north to Chu-Ica, and by the year's end it will grow to over 3000 people. The Chimu golden age continues, and expansion to the south at a steady pace continues, with canals and roads to the new regions being built as the Empire expands. Work on maps begin to yield accurate results, allowing the growth of shipping and trade along the coast. In the port city of Chan Chan, a young sailor by the name of Eka Loksa beings experimenting with designs for a more efficient, more reliable sailing vessel. He decides to use wooden planks to reinforce the bottom of a reed boat, and convinces his employer to let him take it for a trade mission up the coast. A nearly-fatal storm ravages the coast, and most sailors are assumed dead, but then, surprising, Loksa returns the next day. News of his discovery spreads far and wide, and he is soon granted an audience with the Emperor, who agrees to fund the young man's work to look into more and better designs for Chimu ships.
  • Mayapan: Aztec expansion is heavily but discreetly monitored and preliminary defenses are prepared in case of war. Emperor-King Iktan dies this year, and is succeeded by his son Atlahua, who names himself Emperor. Atlahua begins to rally the nation for, what he believes, is an imminent war against the Aztecs. He stirs up nationalist sentiment with the citizens, increasing unity between the city-states. Integration of the southern city-states into the League is continued by the High Council. Each new state is expected to supply men to train and serve in the national army. The council seeks to improve commerce and communication between the many settlements of the Yucatan by constructing and maintaining roads between them. Work continues to renovate and update existing buildings, roads and to create plans for future upkeep and renovations.
  • Rwanda: The nation works on expansion, and is beginning to build a road system across its territory. We strengthen our military, and currently we have 30,000 soldiers, including auxiliaries, fighting in our ranks. We announce the intention to expand, and expand, until we can establish a prosperous Rwandan state. We ask the Congo to establish diplomatic relations with our nation **Mod response required
    • The Congo agrees to establish diplomatic relations.
  • Totonacapan Empire: Emperor Tepictoton begins to rally the nation for, what he believes, is an imminent war against the Aztecs. He stirs up the nationalist sentiment of our citizens, increasing unity between our city-states. Emperor Tepictoton seeing the Aztec aggressive expansion, focuses west, after hearing rumors of nations that claim they have better Metallurgy than the mighty Totonacs and readies his warriors and invades Michoacan and Matlatzinco with 55,000 warriors. Emperor Tepictoton also marry with his new wife Anacaona, she is 16 years old. She gives birth to twin boys later that year while her husband is on the campaign against Michoacan and Matlatzinco, naming them Tepictoton II after his father and Acamapichtli after his grandfather, in their father's absence. Metal working continues to grow, with citizens being able to afford them, allowing more warriors to be modernly armed. Bronze short swords/fie machetes are purchased by more warriors, and research into new longer weapons and sheilds begins. Major roads are constructed and maintained throughtout the Empire to promote trade and ease transport of goods and armies, especially in the northern provinces. The Northern provinces are further integrated into the Empire. El Tajin market prospers, being in a major trade route, along with El Tajin having many visitors to witness its magnificence, turning into a major hub thanks to its proximity to Papantla. Another 1000 people this year accept the Emperor's gracious bounty, along with new plots to build their homes and relocate in El Tajin being astonished by its magnificence. Also an estimate is made by a renowned scholar for our the population of our five biggest population centers, estimating that our capital Xallapan has around 120,000 population and is by far the biggest and the most populous city in the Empire, Cempoala has around 120,000 population and is now rebuild and economic life gets back on track again thanks to several projects in the area, Papantla has around 60,000 population with its market growing to support the new increase in trade, Colipa has around 25,000 population with its walls being praised by its citizens for their solidness and endurance and El Tajin has around 15,000 population, the vast majority of them are settlers from the whole Empire, aiming to receive the generous king's bounty for relocating there as well as new houses. The rights of non Totonacs continue to get revoked in favor of Totonacs, with the Mayan people being the only exemption. We continue trading minorities/non-Totonacs with the Aztecs to sacrifice to their gods in exchange for food, cattle, gold, diamonds and many other resources. A secret proposal is drafted by our most qualified advisors aiming to keep peace with the Aztecs, proposing mass slave trade by relocation of our 500,000 minority people (All of our minorities) into Aztec territory to be sacrificed, with the help of the Aztec army, to be able to keep any unrest under our control, the slaves to be traded for any resources (metals, food, water, weaponry...). The slave merchandise can be alternatively sold gradually or in smaller quantities. [MOD RESPONSE] ((Skyboi you're my only hope))
    • The Aztecs agree to a gradual exchange of slaves/resources over a course of two decades. -Skyboi
    • Bruh, write your own turns. Don't steal mine. - Cour
    • I don't, that's why I steal everyone's turns - hehehehe ... No, really,I only took a sentence of yours out of 20+ sentences that I actually wrote, so ... ~Bear
  • Earldom of Desmond: The war with the MacCarthys and O'Sullivans are over with a complete victory with the annexation of their territory's. We give out lands to our soldiers as well as nobles who have proven themselves worthy during the campaign. Using POW's who are too poor to ransom, instead of just killing them, we use them the build roads, and infrastructure across the enlarged Dukedom. We allow the defeated leaders of the MacCarthys and O'Sullivans to rule over their lands but with us as their lieges. It is now estimated we now have a population of 150,000. We expand the military and economy. In the subjugated lands we attempt to win over the populace by not allowing looting while building schools, churches and roads across the land. Concerned with the poor sanitation and hygiene of the realm we plan to build a systems of hospitals across the country to teach and heal people. We continue to fortify and build castles across the realm and protect ourselves from external threat. The town of Cork increase to around 4000 due to immigration from the Irish, Scottish refugees, and investment/trade from Castille. The economy booms as a result from trade with Castille so we expand the trade fleet and the Navy. Due to our conquest of the McCarthy's and O'Sullivan's we ask the Irish lords/ and tribes if the want to unite under a kingdom (they don't all have to accept, just some) (Mod Response Needed) ((Skyboi you're my only hope)) We also support the Duke of York in England and send him gifts in hopes of causing unrest while we tell him we support him for the throne of England and ask him for and alliance (Mod Response needed) ((Skyboi you're my only hope))
    • You only conquered two clans, you don't even control all of Munster, there's no incentive to join you.
    • It won't work and you shouldn't probably do it because Swanky will easily kill you off.
    • Aragonese Diplomacy: The first Aragonese merchants arrive in Desmond this year to set up branches of the Royal Bank of Barcelona as per our agreement last year; diplomats also arrive to serve as representatives of the King to the Earl's court.
  • Ahom Kingdom: Susenphaa welcomes the 15 new elephants into the Ganesha Division and immediately orders the training of another 15. Training will be completed in 1443. Susenphaa also orders the improvement of roads throughout his kingdom. He also orders the creation of another city, Rangpur. Susenphaa also orders the reduction of the arquebusier force by 200, ensuring only the best remain. The 100 arquebusiers are put into the Ganesha Division. The divisions also receive one more khel of infantry.
  • Order of Knights Hospitaller: Three new large galleys are ordered for construction in order to give the shipbuilders of Crete and Rhodes something to do, since there is little business from the merchant community. A choirboy in the Latin Cathedral writes a passion play in Greek which is well-received by both the Latin and Orthodox rite communities.
  • Korea enjoys a period of prosperity under a meritocratic bureaucracy under the monarch Yi Do. Buddhism, especially the Yi sect, a mixture of Confucian morals and ethics and Muist shamanic rites, continues to be ingrained into Korean culture. With the caste system becoming much looser, and the hereditary aspect being removed, the higher echelons are forced to earn their status through competence and skill, instead of it being given hereditarily. The social strata becomes increasingly vague, while the yangban is on the top, the other castes now have roughly equal status. The cheomin caste, comprising of social outcasts, performers, slaves, and other professions, is abolished and integrated into the lower sangmin. As a result of these reforms, many nobles feel threatened about the loss of guaranteed status and power, and begin to muster small-scale revolts in major cities. However, as they do not longer have the right to own private armies, these revolts are easily suppressed. Rebelling nobles are executed for treason, while minors are given to other pro-reform families. The purged noble's confiscated properties are added to the national treasury, with a portion given to the lesser fortunate to increase the popularity of Yi Do and his administration. Seeking to mirror the economic sophistication of the Ming, the commercialization and augmentation of the Korean economy continues with vigor. Merchant activity is promoted, and with food being so plentiful, a division of labor occurs. Many former peasants flock to cities to work in industrial complexes and in handicrafts and textiles rather than agriculture. Blast-furnaces are upscaled to hold a much higher capacity. Buildings all across Korea is upscaled to convey increasing Korean prosperity, whilst Korean territory further expands deep into Manchuria, displacing and assimilating local Jurchen tribes. Korea sends its third batch of tribute to the Ming, whilst increasing bilateral trade with Tondo. Due to its attempt of invasion many years ago, Yi Do is anxious and reluctant to reestablish ties with Japan, even making plans to invade it in retaliation.
    • Korean diplomacy (to the Ming) – Yi Do secretly sends a batch of emissaries to Beijing to discuss a potential invasion of Japan together, as they chose to opt out of the Chinese tributary system and refuse to acknowledge Chinese superiority. Korea will annex Japan as a constituent state under a Korean–Japanese union, while the Ryukyus will be given to Japan. China will also receive extra human tribute (concubines and eunuchs) from Korea.
    • Ming Diplomacy: While the Ming agree to the invasion of Japan the Emperor stresses the need for proper preparations for such a serious undertaking. (We'll do it but we need time to prepare.)
  • Sweden: As the Mediterranean trade collapses, the Bank of St. Birgitta makes a bold move and asks to establish outposts in London, Nantes, Edinburgh (England), Oldenburg, Stettin (Brandenburg), The Hague, Brugge, Antwerp (Burgundy), Riga, Danzig (Teutonic Order) and Calais. (Mod Response for Oldenburg, please). We ask Denmark to open up an associate filial in Dundee and restore the Aberdeen branch of the bank. King Kristjen is asking the European nations for a bride for his heir, Olaf, as well as for his second son, the renownly handsome Gustav. We continue building the University of Uppsala, to spread knowledge in our lands. The building has been increased when news of Cologne's blessing came to our ears. We apologize to Russia for the diplomatic insult we might have caused, and continue to propose the help for a port. We continue promoting the lumber, iron, copper and wool trade throughout Europe and the Bank of St. Birgitta proposes to the Royal Bank of Barcelona to promote North-South trade together, to remediate the economic slump as fast as possible. We continue expanding North, settling more people northward and Christianizing the pagan Lappish and Finns. We begin to set up an autonomous government for the island of Gotland, to promote trade, based on the merchant republics of the south. We SECRETLY contact Portugal's bank in regards of buying Norway's debt. Secret End. We ask Cologne to send us Ekkehard's creation.
    • Swedish Secret Diplomacy to Denmark: We are worried about King Jonathan's fits of madness and propose to house the royal children in Stockholm, should war break out. We will support Denmark in any Norwegian attack on Denmark and propose to depose King Jonathan.
      • Danish Secret Diplomacy to Sweden: With King Johnathan's bouts of madness and the conflict Mikkael and I are having regarding Eric, I remorsefully send Eric to Stockholm after embracing him. He shall go to Stockholm for the sake of his safety during this time of crisis, and shall be returned to me in Copenhagen when the war is over, and he shall receive the greatest education in all of Sweden. We thank Sweden for the proposal, and we accept the proposal to overthrow King Johnathan. We also have an additional term, to make me, Queen Emma of Denmark, to be Queen of Norway, and for Crown Prince of Norway to be King Consort of Norway. We make plans to go to war with Norway next year.
        • Swedish Secret Diplomacy to Sweden: We agree.
    • Swedish Secret Diplomacy: We offer Russia to renounce on Pskov as a tributary and no longer assure their independence, in return for a military alliance. The proposal for a city on the Baltic is to be associated to this, but not binding.
      • Russian Secret Dip: The alliance is accepted. Russia provides maps to Sweden through probably winter-time ice sheets in the area to ease with the city-building.
        • Swedish Secret Dip: We agree and send the maps.
    • Aragonese Diplomacy: The Royal Bank of Barcelona is more than willing to expand its horizons, and eagerly establishes its new friendship and alliance with the Bank of St. Birgitta. Our merchants begin establishing trade between Iberia and Scandinavia. However, the currently limited range of our ships means that at this time Sweden will have to take responsibility for the majority of transport. We propose setting up an intermediary in the middle of the route to allow the exchange of goods between Aragon and Sweden.
      • Swedish Diplomacy: The Bank of St. Birgitta owns an outpost in Middelburg, in Burgundy. We could use this as the intermediary trade post.
        • Aragonese Diplomacy: The executives of the BRB find this an excellent solution to the transportation problem. Trade shall begin immediately.
    • Portugal agrees.
    • Aragonese Diplomacy: To further strengthen our new friendship, we propose a royal marriage between Princess Eleanor of Aragon and Crown Prince Olaf of Sweden.
    • Italian Diplomacy: We offer the hand of Lady Isabella Visconti, first cousin of King Niccolò Maria, in marriage to Prince Olaf, including a comfortably sized dowry.
      • Swedish Diplomacy: We accept Lady Isabella Visconti as bethrothed to Olaf, Crown Prince of Sweden.
      • Italian Diplomacy: King Niccolò Maria Visconti congratulates Crown Prince Olaf on his marriage.
    • Oldenburg accepts the placement of a Bank of St. Birgitta in its nation. -Rexmod
    • Earldom of Desmond Diplomacy: We ask for a placement of a Bank of St. Birgitta in our nation, a trade agreement to fund our wars as well as allowing the Swedish use of our ports to exploit Irish Sea trade.
      • Swedish Diplomacy: We agree to post a bank outpost in Cork and allow the Earl of Desmond to ask for a loan.
  • Bahmanids: We continue our earlier economic warfare against Omani Gujarat, and secretly offer bounties to pirates who attack shipping going to and from Gujarat. Not wanting to waste the shipbuilding recources of the empire, Ali Nadeem Shah orders 30 more warships to be constructed over the next decade, and that materials for ten more be gathered at different ports, to be quickly constructed in times of crisis. Large terraces are built in the highlands of Sri Lanka, so that more spices can be farmed and exported.
  • Mogadishu: The nation's income continues to grow, both from increased tariffs and from the Royal Trade Fleet. Our manufacturers expand and make more money. We further expand toward the Jubba River, as canals, dikes and ditches are being built. The land surrounding the Jubba-Shebelle Rivers becomes more fertile. 10,000 local tribesman and foreign settlers became citizens of our nation last year due to our policies of land reclamation and immigration attraction. We built cannons in our Chinese furnaces, which we received from China from Zheng He's trip.
  • Abbasid Caliphate: Al Najm Al-Akbar returns to Damascus, considering his next move with Persia in chaos.
  • Duchy of Thuringen: The city guard continues to defend the capital city of Erfurt. Our military grows by adding more recruits each year. We continue to trade again with our neighboring states. Farming goes well in our nation this year. The healthy population continues to increase by 3% each year. Karsten's improvement in the training area is continuing to show off. Our economy continues to try to rebuild itself from the collapse of 1439. We continue to invest in Ekehard's printing press, thinking it will help boost our economy of our nation back to what it used to be in 1438 before the collapse.
  • Bohemia: Wenceslaus V continues to influence the electors. The army in Serbia successfully takes it with no resistance from the Ottomans. The army continues to Greece to start the Battle of Greece in order to liberate it. Wenceslaus V's children continue schooling. Wenceslaus V politely asks the ruler of Milan to calm the Italian states down. The Bank of Prague continues to be funded and grows. The bank opens up new branches across Germany, stabilizing the economic situation for most of the smaller German countries.
    • Danish Diplomacy: After many years of friendly relations between our two nations, we wish to formalize an alliance with Bohemia.
  • China: The Chinese continue to develop infrastructure throughout their empire.
  • The Crown of Castile works rapidly to solve the economic crisis, but alas the crisis only continues to spiral out of control. As a result, many of the infrastructure projects are forced to take a back seat to maintaining Castile's Navy. The addition of a fourth of Genoa's navy helps in this regard, but without the proper funds the naval development grinds to a near halt for the time being. The remaining population of Granada continues to be deported, with a remaining 330,000 Granadan Muslims set for deportation over the next five years. Henry IV forms his new religious council, called the Order of the Red Lion. The Order is established to ensure that the "Religious Integrity" of Castile remains in check. In reality, however, the Order of the Red Lion seeks to destroy political discontent under the King's rule, and its establishment further solidifies King Henry's Absolute Power. Castile inherits many of Genoa's merchants and trade routes, but with the banking crisis having ruined the economies of many nations, trade is at an all time low.
    • Kingdom of Gibraltar: Continues its Chirstinization efforts. With a remaining 120,000 Berber Muslims in the territory, the kingdom should be able to finish the deportation efforts within seven more years. Castillian/Christian populace now numbers 50,000 within Gibraltar. With the economic crisis, little work is done on expanding the irrigation systems to reclaim the desert of Morocco. The Kingdom is ruled by Alfonso I of the House of Ivera.
    • Kingdom of Morocco: The Kingdom has a remaining Berber Muslim population of 850,000. With the slower settlement and deportation efforts, it is estimated to take another 30-50 years before. Morocco continues to be the meeting ground of Trade between Europe and the faraway Kuzir Empire, which makes the merchants of Fez quite rich. These merchants are somewhat spared from the economic crisis in Europe as they trade primarily with the Kuzirs, but many of them still feel the pressure with the economic collapse of Europe. The Kingdom is Ruled by Beatriz I, from a side branch of the House of Burgundy. Reclaim efforts are mostly funded by the wealthy merchants in Fez.
    • The Serene Republic of Liguria: With the end of the Neopolitian War, the republic of Liguria is established and ruled by the Spinola Family, ruled by Franseco Spinola. With the Rape of Genoa, a little under half of the population has fled the nation, resulting in a current population of 190,000. With many shipyards and docks damaged during the war, Franseco uses what little funds he has available to slowly restore the nation to its former glory, under Castillian dominance of course.
    • The Duchy of Athens: Annexes all of the Greek territory that Castile inherited from the Neopolitian War, and Castile/Athens asks that Naxos end its invasion as the war is over. The nation has a population of 60,000 and although there is some discontent, any of hope of rebellion is squashed by the lack of a good sponsor, the banking crisis, and the destruction of the Republic of Genoa. Duke Antonio Acciaioli is allowed to remain in power and a marrige is set up between his son Antonio and the daughter of Castile, Isabella.
    • Aragonese Diplomacy: We urge Castile to somehow restrict movement of Genoese citizens, as many of them are flocking to Portugal, which is a situation we would both wish to avoid at this time.
  • Norway: After silence from our neighbors in KU, Mikkael begins to grow more worried for his nation. Jonathan Gyldenlove dies from cutting himself with a piece of glass because he thought it was sugar and consumed it. After his death, Mikkael is crowned King of Norway by the archbishop of Nidaros. Worried about his neglecting of his wife and his son he attempts to reconcile with his wife but to be only turned back by Danish nobles. Fearing for the worse that Denmark is attempting to take over Norway. Secret diplomacy We send word to Sweden warning them of the Danish plot and that they are not to be trusted as Mikkael makes it known that Emma plans to restore the KU and when norway is conquered and submitted Sweden is next. Secret end Fearful of Danish invasion fortificactions are built in Oslo, Bergen and Niadros to protect them and a large army is raised. We place troops on the border with Denmark to protect against any possible invasion. The bastard of Jonathan is born to Joanna of Vasa whom he had an affair with while she was in Norway and is named Jonathan Sølvulv after his grandfather in fear of a diplomatic conumdrum the baby is hidden with a norwegian for the time being.
    • Secret Diplomacy: Fearful of aggression from both states we send an offer of alliance to France as England is an ally with Denmark and Denmark is becoming more hostile toward us we ask for a defensive alliance to protect us.
    • Swedish Secret Diplomacy: We are aware.
    • OOC Sweden: THERE IS NO DANO-NORWEGIAN BORDER! ~Wolves
    • Norwegian Diplomacy: We just know learn that we are squatting in Swedish lands we move our troops back to the Norwegian-Swedish Border and place troops in bergen and oslo
  • Benin: The development of the road network in Benin continues, along with the ambitious infrastructure plans drawn up by the Oba of Benin for the western half of the empire. New cities and towns, canals, public facilities and fortifications, development of agricultural lands and forest clearing all take place under the oversight of the new policy of Oba Isikhuan. He wishes to be remembered as the man who built up the empire and improved the lives of his people, all while seeking to overshadow his father's achievements. He personally directs the settlement of lands in Ghana, directing his warriors person as to the expansion of new lands. 10,000 kilometers of land along the coast are taken, and the women and children taken into captivity by the Bini, while the men are executed by the warriors of Benin. In the conquered lands of Jolof, the adult men are forced into slavery and sold off to lands beyond Benin to Kongo, the neighboring tribes, Kanem-Bornu, and any nations willing to take them. The process of assimilating the Jolof people into the empire begins, though most are quickly cowed into submission by Benin's warriors. The demographic transformation of Benin over the last four decades from a multi-ethnic empire to a predominately singular identity has been bewildering. The harsh and often violent initiatives taken by the Bini to expand their own ethnic group at the expense of weaker and smaller ones has been successful. The Songhai were completely obliterated as a group, and the Igbo having long been assimilated into the linguistically and culturally similar Edo population. The Yoruba have been united as a group under the auspices of the Edo people, and the newly unified group now represented as the Bini people of the empire. The Bini alone make up 60% of the imperial population, and with the constant indoctrination of non-Bini youth in Kuzir schools, and the forced marriages of foreign women into the Bini population to bolster the empire's growth rate, most officials believe that within twenty years time, should the empire continue its demographic policies, the Bini will come to represent 80-90% of the total population. In line with the military alliance signed with Portugal, the first ogun from Benin is shipped off to Portugal to bolster the military forces of that nation. The arrival of 5500 warriors and their families to Portugal from the Bini port city of Ziguinchor, signals the first ever exercise of political power by Benin far beyond its homeland in Africa. The warriors of the newly formed Ogun XXXIX Ariwa immediately begin work on constructing fortification for themselves and their families to reside in north of the town of Evora, and take up residences in that region. Later in the year, Ogun XXIX Songhay is transferred from its base in Gao to Portugal as well, bolstering the Bini forces in the nation to 11,000 warriors. Three additional ogun are to be shipped out to the Iberian kingdom in the event Portugal is attacked as part of the agreement between Benin and Portugal, with the costs for the forces paid for by Benin, but with the benefit of naval basing rights out of Portuguese ports. So as to put the people at ease, all Bini warriors are required to speak of their admiration for Christianity and their belief that Christianity is indeed a saintly religion. While the Kuzir believe that theirs is the religion that truly uncovers the will and the nature of God, Kuzir also believe that as part of God's will, he put into the minds of men the need for spirituality. Thus, all religions are indeed correct, but all lack the fundamental traits that truly focus on uncovering God within creation. As a result, while Kuzir seek to understand all religions as a natural growth of man's god-given spirituality, Kuzir never seek to join these religions, thus protecting them from conversion to another faith. Outside of their military duties, the Bini warriors are to contribute to the construction projects in Portugal and road building in their free time. Another 60,000 Malian slaves are transported from Benin to the Ottoman Empire in line with the trade agreement signed by the two powers.
    • ​No, you can not send a veritable occupying force into Europe. -Rexmod
    • And I assume there is a legitimate reason for this? ~Viva
  • Papal States: The Papacy is displeased with the current events that have taken place in Italy, and privately confers with the pope to formulate a grand strategy and determine future steps. For now, all that is done is to see that the Papacy's garrisons are well manned and maintained and that the unity of the present Church is upheld in thought and deed.
    • In Constantinople, the Papal commander continues to assist in repairs and fortifications. Privately, he worries he may soon have to withdraw his forces and return to Italy.
    • Cologne Dip: The Archbishop of Cologne applies (somewhat urgently) to the pope, asking for the pope to please write a Papal Bull granting Ekkehard Stelzner exclusive rights, in the style of a patent, to the designs of the printing press.
  • After many years of relative seclusion, Archduke Albert V & II of Austria honours his uncle, Ernst, by renaming the city of Trieste Ernstberg. After hearing of movable type, realizing the boons it could give him in regards to the books and whatnot, aswell as helping his university in Vienna, decides to attempt to purchase the plans to a movable type machine in Cologne. At wost, he is willing to allow [insert inventor of the printing press here] set up a printing shop in Vienna, under, of course, Archducal finance. Although unless works printed are heinously heretical, blasphemous, or otherwise illegal (i.e. Privilegium Maius Denial), the Archduke promises not to interfere in the printing office. Meanwhile, the widespread use of Austrian currency and practice has made the Mints in Munich, Vienna and now Liens quite profitable and the monies coined are becoming very reliable in weight and purity. After seeing widespread use of firearms, The Archduke Decrees the formation of the "Bombard Regiment", a regiment consisting of Five hundred men, all armed with Arquebuses produced in Austria, in addition to the Tormenta regiments which include "giant Bombards" (Cannons). IN any case, The Archduke's eldest son, Ferdinand, grandson of the King of Bohemia, reaches sixteen years and is given the title "Count of Habsburg" and given control of Further Austria. The son is promising in statesmanship, and Albert hopes that his time in Further Austria, the Habsburgs' Ancestral lands, gives him more and more experience. Meanwhile, more integration efforts are done in Bavaria to enter it into the Austrian Realms.
  • Iroquois Confederacy: Chief Notaku sends yet another delegate to Tadodaho, stating that war is a part of all of our cultures, that does not mean this war is necessary. We all share the same Creator, because of this, blood should not be shed. We can both flourish as separate nations, all unified under the Great Tree of Peace. There have been decades of intermixing of our two great peoples, if we march to war, we shall shed the blood of our families. We ask once more, accept peace. (Mod response). Since meeting with his chiefs, the Iroquois people find a stronger sense of nationalism and many worry about the war-mongering chieftan outside their borders. Chief Notaku ensures his people that Tadodaho will never set foot within the land of the Iroquois, so long as he's an enemy. The borders remain guarded and more braves are trained in the use of the shield wall. We continue trading with with our western allies, as well as opening up more trade routes to the south.
  • Queen Emma of Denmark: The new year entered in like a slow moving wind without the response of Mikkael, and I sat on my throne trying to be stoic but inside I feel a deep sadness, so I just stare into space while sitting upon my throne. While sitting in Copenhagen Castle I hear a voice in the distance, and I go closer and it is the voice of Mikkael, thus I run outside the castle and see him being driven away and Mikkael is in the distance of the horizon, so I run as fast as I can but I trip on the white snow. I cry out to Mikkael but he does not hear me, no answer. A peasant sees me and he helps me up and takes me to the castle. The peasant's name is Emanuel and I reward him and his family for his kindness, and I allow them to be court servants. I am severely distraught for failing to meet Mikkael once again, and I cry openingly "Mother, what's wrong?" Eric asks. "Mother is scared, Eric" Eric hugged me and I hugged him back and I wept. "Everything is going to be okay Eric, thank you for the hug." Later I learned that the Danish nobility drove off Mikkael without my consent, and I was furious, and I feared that Mikkael would blame me for this rejection and he would act in retaliation and I had no idea what to do and I prayed to God for an answer of what I should do. Then the answer came, as I received the Swedish diplomat and he said that that King Kristejen Vasa of Sweden offered that Eric be protected and educated in Stockholm. The diplomat also said that they would help us in a war against Norway. I thanked the Swedish diplomat deeply and sincerely, and I set sail to Stockholm with my son, Crown Prince Eric to arrange his tutelage while this time of crisis went on and I said that Eric is to return to Copenhagen once the war was over. In Stockholm I discussed the tutelage of Eric and the war plans against Norway in depth. In these conversations, I talked with the Vasas, and Gustav Vasa caught my interest especially, for he played with Eric and he educated him in depth on a wide variety of topics. I think to myself "This is the man, Gustav Vasa, is the man who I turned down. He is the most loving and caring living man I ever met, he is the father that Eric never had, he is loving and caring to his family and his friends, highly intellegent, and has great military prowess. I can not believe I chose Mikkael over Gustav." The more we talked to each other the more our affection for each other grew, and this affection blossomed into love, and this love created a very passionate romance and an affair full of life and spirit. Before my return to Copenhagen I embraced my love, Gustav Vasa and my son Eric before I left the two greatest loves in my life. Upon my return to Copenhagen I prepared Denmark for war against Norway, and I send 6000 troops to the Danish-Norwegian border, intent on capturing the city of Oslo.
    • Danish Diplomacy to France: With our ally, the Kingdom of England now an ally of the Kingdom of France, we request to be allies with the Kingdom of France.
    • OOC Sweden: THERE IS NO DANO-NORWEGIAN BORDER!
    • Danish Diplomacy; Realizing there's no such thing as the Dano-Swedish border, we retreat from Sweden's lands to the Dano-Swedish border, and we request military access through Sweden should war fall upon us.
  • Ottoman Sultanate: The sultan works to build schools across the Ottoman Empire and works on hiring people across the state. More Muslims are sent to the south and some Turks are sent to mix with the other Muslims in the areas. The army then is brought back to surround the city while the army tries to gain more troops to replace. With the loss of the city Murad goes into Ankara and works on his army and navy weaponry. The sultan then begins to work on trading with the Thrimids and the Caliphate. Murad begins to send traders past Thrimid's land to Afghanistan and some going into India. The sultan begins to work on making Ankara a new city as Murda said "Better then the other" as he works on making the city a trading center - while the army is trained. The sultan begins to work his military training. Slaves are sent to mosques and School to learn Arabic and ottoman Turkish and Quran and made told if they teach 50 people how to read and speak Ottoman Turkish and Arabic. We ask the Gurkani Sultanate for peace and to work on making a peace treaty.
    • Serbia: An army is amassing to march on the enemy, linking up with Wallachia.
      • Wallachia (Ottoman vassal): The sultan begins to create 800 more mosques - mostly in the South, and recruiting peasants for the army. More imams are sent to Serbia in hope of converting the population. The troops are ordered not to fire unless fired upon, the troops begin to work on defenses. The castle is now worked on by peasants. With the riots across the vassals the government is sent in to stop any riots but the government halts their construction of mosques (but already-built mosques will stay) but Wallachian Muslims are recommended to move down south and to spread across the green areas while they are recommended to then populate the area. The area is set up with defenses to stop the crusader army. An army is amassing and begins to march on the enemy (10,000 to Belgrade, 40,000 to Grecce.)
      • Epirus (Ottoman vassal): The state begins to send aid to civilians after Sultan Mehmed is heard saying "Let the Christians, Jews and anyone get food ... so long as they stay with the state. An army is amassing and begin to march on fight the enemy, along with Naval support of 300 ships.
  • Portugal: Portugal expands its navy by 15 ships, seeking to expand its ability to fight at sea tremendously. Growth of the economy thanks to the employment of more Portuguese in shipbuilding leads to a level of recovery from the economic crash Europe is undergoing as a result of the burning of Genoa and the banks that loaned to the European powers. After catching wind of the tactics of Aragon to blockade Portugal, moves are made by the Portuguese to help secure the Genovese population by flying the Aragonese and Castilian flags at sea, helping them to avoid inspections by the navy of Aragon. With the lands of Portugal largely secured by the support of the Bini warriors of Africa, many Portuguese soldiers are placed on trade vessels to help combat forced inspections by the Aragonese, and aid the vessels in escaping the enemy with the Genovese on-board. Hearing of the riches of Africa, Prince Henry the Navigator builds a crew of men and soldiers to go to the black continent to explore the lands and gain wealth in the region. Exploring primarily around the lands of Guinea, Prince Henry and his men find themselves combating African natives of the Fula and Mandinka tribes, though view the European explorers with hostility. Many of Henry's men are killed in the confrontations, but the young prince distinguishes himself by single-handedly saving three of his men from the tribals, and carrying one wounded soldier to the boat while fighting off several African warriors. Back home, investment in the infrastructure of the kingdom is made, especially with regards to the docks of Faro, where the majority of the Genovese refugees have made their new home. Fearing the worse about their relatives in Barcelona, many Genovese send word back to Italy of the actions of the Aragonese in attempting to force their people into Aragon by offering "incentives" to not join their families in Portugal. Many more go so far as to take up arms and join the crews of the Portuguese merchant vessels to help protect their people and provide safe passage to Portugal.
    • Once again posting on Oct's behalf as per his request. ~Viva
    • Either this post, or the one above (right above the Ottomans' post) needs to go (or you can always combine them). One post per turn. Thank you, -Rexmod
  • Cologne:' The Archbishop of Cologne applies (somewhat urgently) to the pope, asking for the pope to please write a Papal Bull granting Ekkehard Stelzner exclusive rights, in the style of a patent, to the designs of the printing press. Meanwhile, the Archbishop clarifies his deal from the previous year with Stelzner to involve Cologne and Essen jointly being granted a small percentage of royalties from every book Stelzner ever prints. Cologne hears of Sweden’s request and begins to send some of Ekkehard’s next batch of Bibles to Swedish Churches under the Adelphinian Reforms as a show of good faith while a deal with Ekkehard himself can be organised. As long as Ekkehard can maintain perpetual rights over the patent to the device, Cologne is happy to send Sweden a copy of the device. Thus, Cologne awaits the pope's’ response. Meanwhile, in response to Austria’s attempts to secure the device, Cologne also sends Austria a series of Latin and German Bibles in a show of good faith, and tells Austria on Ekkehard’s behalf that as long as Ekkehard can maintain perpetual rights over the patent to the device, Cologne is happy to work with Austria in developing the movable type.
    • Essen: Meanwhile, the canonesses in Essen elect a new Abbess, Sophia I von Daun-Oberstein. Abbess Sophia is, like her predecessor, fully invested in the Adelphinian Reforms. Unlike Margarete however, she is relatively young for an abbess and is very energetic. She immediately makes plans to have the Book of Adelphinian Reforms printed and distributed to all Churches in countries that have implemented the reforms.
    • OOC Sweden: Excuse me, but who is the actual Archbishop of Cologne at this time and point?
      • OOC: Archbishop Dietrich II of Cologne, sorry.
    • Italian Diplomacy: Leading Christian scholars and clerics, who have been tasked with transliterating and transcribing various Greek and Latin works into the vernacular, appeal to the Abbess of Essen to send the secrets of the printing press to Italy. Florentine and Venetian bankers, impressed by the news, are willing to compensate Stelzner for his discovery.
      • Cologne/Essen Dip: Abbess Sophia I of Essen recognises Italy's contribution to Christianity with respect to the key works, and offers Italy the same deal Cologne has offered Austria and Sweden: In return for an acknowledgement that Stelzner will retain perpetual rights over the patent to the device, Essen will send Italy a copy of the plans. In the meantime, Essen offers Italy some of the new batch of Bibles in a show of good faith and hopes that Italy will agree to this arrangement.
    • OOC (slightly) Austria: Modern Patents were only first issued in 1450 by the nation of Venice. Even those were only issued for ten years. Even today, in the modern era, patents rarely last more than 15 years. The Notion of "perpetual rights" is absurd. Monopolies, however, are a different issue, and Austria would be willing to give Ekkehard's company monopoly over printing so long as they abide by all government printing requests and pay the appropriate trade taxes for business done within the Archduchy in addition to a ten year pattent.
  • Grand Boyardom of Russia: The invasion of Persia goes horribly awry. The Second Fleet engages Persian fleets in the Black Sea, seeing victories along the coast. However, attrition costs many Russian lives, in addition to a bout of illness spreading through the soldiers as they make their way through Georgia. Despite seeing many military victories in the initial stage of the war, Russian forces are routed in the Caucaucus region by Persian soldiers. Being unable to hold the territory taken by naval invasions in Crimea and along the Black Sea, by the end of the year, both nations are right back where they started; at square one. The Boyars vote to seek a white peace with Persia; nothing is gained and nothing is lost besides prestige and the town goat of Rostov-on-Don. A funeral is held for the slain livestock.
  • The Kingdom of England: King Richard is pleased with the progression of the English economy. England accepts the banking outposts of Sweden, as long as Sweden swears to help and protect and not war Denmark or England, or the banking outposts will be shut down. The economy and military is increased. King Richard sends representatives to Desmond to let them know, if do not respect and support the English Crown, they will declare war on Desmond. Troop movements are mainly spread along the Scottish garrisons and Dublin. With the lack of response of an alliance from France, England retracts their offer of an alliance, channeling their navy into the English channel. This gains some respect from the people of England again, showing more English pride, independence, and identity.
  • ​Wales: Wales continues to prosper economically and sends troops to Dublin, expanding their economy and military. Wales continues to make effective use of their mining production.
    • Dublin: Huge numbers are gathered in Dublin as all excess troops have been moved to Dublin. Dublin increases its military and navy. Ships encircle Desmond shores, not showing any signs of aggression.
    • Southern Scotland: With the reorganization of Southern Scotland, the annexed territory quickly becomes into economically catching up and rebuilding a large army. Southern Scotland is looked after my the newly promoted Commander Hunte, now General Hunte. Meanwhile General Scarlet at the age of 47 is sent to Dublin to prepare for any aggression in the west. Expands military and economy.
    • Northern Scotland: With Northern Scotland becoming more organized and the militias and resistance finally being wiped out by the new General Hunte, and as he moves south, Captain Duncan Jameson is promoted to Commander Jameson and is stationed in Northern Scotland to continue seeing over it getting the area back into organized profession. They expand their military and economy. The lands is slowly being annexed and centralized into The Kingdom of England.
    • Brittany (Not sure if I'm supposed to keep posting as this?): With the sudden collapse of a bridge between England and France, Brittany concentrates on helping England as much as it can expanding its economy and navy. The border along France is reinforced, in case of any French surprise. Resources and gold are sent to England to better the throne.
    • LOL, Swanky. I accepted it last turn. Calm down.
  • Ethiopia: (Sorry for the inactivity a lot of job searching and school work) Zera Yacob also know as Kwestantinos I one of the greatest rules of Ethiopia has now been ruling for seven years bring great advances in trade and culture. Zera is glad with the work of his two emissaries being sent to the Papacy. He begins to increase resource production and makes church mandtory every mid week day. Adulis has became a major city with the Church of Yeshaq being the main attraction. The royal guard is expanded to 1500 for the larger population.
  • In the Kingdom of Italy, petitions urging the King to cut ties with the Holy Roman Empire begin to pour in. While Niccolò Maria had originally planned to remain in the Holy Roman Empire after being crowned, seeing the massive opposition to the supranational organization from throughout the peninsula and noting the Bohemians' weakness against the Ottomans, the King begins to consider consolidating Italy outside of the Holy Roman Empire. He sends envoys to the other Italian states within the HRE, gauging their interest in leaving the Empire, and finds it to be lacking. As such, Niccolò Maria discerns it would be best to remain within the Empire. He engages in a tour of the realm, promoting its external stability and ability to standardize relations. He also attempts to meet or have diplomats meet with as many upset Italians as possible. Meanwhile, efforts are made to continue to recover from the war, with manpower beginning the slow return to normal levels.
  • In the Kingdom of Naples, Mary Anjou, upset at her brother for overseeing the loss of Naxos without a drop of blood being spilled, has recovered the domestic economy, and not having made peace yet with Naxos, offers them an ultimatum: revert to Neapolitan vassalage, or face annexation in war.

1442

Upset by the new King of England’s sudden attachment to his liege, the King of France, many English nobles begin to clamor for the Duke of York to take the royal throne. By the end of the year, York, a great general, has gathered immense support in the periphery of England, which declares an open revolt against the Breton king.

While most of Europe has now recovered from the economic collapse of 1439, the nation of Aragon faces its own, smaller banking crisis. This is caused by the Royal Bank of Barcelona, being capitalized by the Royal Family, attempting to collect on debts owed by Aragon’s royal family. In effect, they had loaned out money to themselves and others in sort of Ponzi scheme. This bank collapses drastically, and most Europeans grow wary of banking, causing branch closures of the Bank of Prague and Bank of St. Birgitta.

As tensions rise between Aragon and Portugal, Aragon discovers the Portuguese plot to smuggle in more Genoans. An Aragonese captain orders battle with an escorted Portuguese convoy, and the Aragonese squadron is sunk. Back in Barcelona, there is outrage in the streets as the populace urges the King to fight its fellow Iberian state.

Bohemia’s army is stuck in enemy territory and mostly slaughtered as they retreat from Greece after being surrounded by the Ottoman Turks. They are said to have fought valiantly for the Emperor and Christianity, as they nearly obliterated the Turkish forces as well, leaving only a few thousand alive to tell the tale. News of the infamous “Massacre at Xánthi” spreads throughout Europe, leading many to call for a new crusade to liberate the continent from the Muslim influence. This also inspires the numerous non-Muslims to feel discontent, especially combined with the massive construction of mosques.

Internal stability greatly declines in the newly founded Uzbek Sultanate, with different ethnic groups squabbling over the proper course of action the nation should take. The nation shatters by the end of the year into (along with the Uzbeki state) Balochistan, the Pashtun Sultanate, the Turkomen Sultanate, the Kazakh Empire.

After costly battles to defend Mosul and recapture Trebizond, the Persian Army is largely worn out. Advisers to the Shah suggest taking a brief respite before later pursuing the smaller eastern rebel statelets.

NOTE: IN 1439's turn Edgeofnight announced 3-turn bans for non-lictor posting below events. -Skyboi


  • Duchy of Burgundy: naval development continues. (More may come)
  • The Gurkani Sultanate: Sultan Ulugh Beg Mirza continued his rule over the Sultanate. The Gurkani population rose to about 24 million with the people flocking to cities like Herat, Isfahan, Gamrun, Qazvin, Bukhara, Tabriz and Iskenderun; primarily due to their strategic position in the spice trade. The military was primarily composed of medium-to-heavy cavalry, composite bow, lance, mace, and sword. Heavy cavalrymen wore plated chain mail or metal lamellar armor, with their horses also wearing leather or metal lamellar barding. The infantry was equipped with daggers and swords to be utilised in close combat against the enemy and elephants as well as carts were used for the transportation of supplies. Cannons were constructed to serve as siege weaponry whilst experimental muskets were beginning to be developed. Naval bases were established at Iskenderun, Trabzon and Gamrun to establish the presence of the Gurkani fleet in the Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea and the Persian Gulf respectively, keen on controlling any piracy. The Gurkani Navy developed galleys and carracks to augment the smaller patrol fleets. Agriculture and commerce were at the Sultanate's forepoint, with wheat, rice and barley being amongst the largest produced crops. To prevent the Sultanate from ever getting hit by a major famine, the individual Amirs also engaged in the storage of food supplies, which would be utilized in case of famine or otherwise exported. Fishery was promoted as well as it helped in sustaining the fishery villages that were present along the coast, as well as the major port cities of Iskenderun, Basra, Gamrun and Trabzon. The Sultanate mined large amounts of silver and gold, to serve as currency as well as ornaments and jewellery. Importance was also given on the development of proper roads for the merchants utilizing the trade routes through the Sultanate, with all caravans being armed and protected with a small detachment of guards. Meanwhile, the construction of educational madrassahs continued throughout the Empire, with the sultan keen on spreading education and knowledge amongst the populace of the Sultanate. The sultan sought to replicate the Islamic Golden Age that existed during the period of the Abbasids prior to the Mongol Invasion, and accordingly funded the teaching of Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, with Algebra, Geometry, Astronomy, Anatomy and Medicine being of prime importance. The Sultanate continued to expand its territories into the Caucasus and the Persian Gulf islands.With the Abbasid assault on Mosul repelled and Trebizond retaken, the people took to the streets to celebrate the victory. Upon hearing news that the Russians had sued for peace as well, the people brightened up with joy. However, none of this compared to the celebrations that took place in the aftermath of the collapse of the Uzbek Sultanate. The Sultan Ulugh Beg declared that God had awarded victory to the people against all odds, and ordered the head of the dead Caliph Al Najm to be paraded in the streets of Isfahan. The head would later be catapaulted into the Persian Gulf. Meanwhile, the white peace offer from the Ottoman Empire was accepted. With the war having ended, the sultan immediately set out to work as he ordered the restoration of any damage dealt to Mosul and Trebizond and ordered the construction of major fortifications alongside Mosul and Baghdad. Finally, due to the separation of multiple states from the Sultanate, the sultan announced the partial dissolution of the Compact of Iskenderun, now offering only sea routes to India and China via Basra and Gamrun
    • Jalayirid Sultanate: Sultana Saima Daula continued her reign over the Sultanate. Acting as a vassal to the Gurkani Sultanate, she would only be answerable to the Gurkani Amir. The military and the navy were developed along the same lines as their Gurkani counterparts, with a major naval base constructed at Iskenderun where the Jalayirid fleet was also situated. Jalayirid authorities continue to work on the construction of a fleet at İskenderun, working side by side with Castilian authorities. The Jalayirid Sultana, Rukhsana Daula would continue to develop the trade route leading from his Mediterranean port of İskenderun to his Persian Gulf port of Basra, hoping to make it much more advanced and efficient. The people celebrated the victory against the Ottoman, Abbasid and Russian forces
    • Khedivate of Trabzon: Amir Alexios IV Komnenos continued his reign over the Sultanate. Acting as a vassal to the Gurkani Sultanate, he would only be answerable to the Gurkani Amir. The military and the navy were developed along the same lines as their Gurkani counterparts, with a major naval base constructed at the city of Trabzon, where the Trabzon fleet was also situated. Trabzoni authorities continue to work on the construction of a fleet at Trabzon, working side by side with Castilian authorities. The Trabzon Amir, Alexios IV Komnenos would continue to develop the trade route leading from his Black Sea port of Trabzon, connecting it to the city of Tabriz, hoping to make the spice trade routes much more advanced and efficient. The people celebrated the victory against the Ottoman, Abbasid and Russian forces.
  • The King of Aragon is outraged by the Captain's spontaneous and reckless actions, causing the Navy to lose at least five perfectly-conditioned warships. He tries to calm the people, telling them that now is not the time for confrontation with Portugal, and that the crews of the ships died because of their captain's careless and fatal mistakes. We send envoys to Portugal to relay a message of apology from the King, compensating Portugal with ten pounds of gold in return for the maintenance of peace. We also secretly issue a message simultaneously to Castile, warning our ally to prepare for a war in case negotiations with Portugal fail. To combat the existential crisis facing it the Royal Bank begins to downsize, and offers to sell the Irish branch of the Royal Bank to the Bank of St. Birgitta or to help establish a local Irish bank. We also plan to close the branch in Liguria next year, and propose to sell it to local businessmen (SKYBOI YOU'RE MY ONLY HOPE). However, trade literally goes swimmingly well between Aragon and Sweden thanks to the efforts of the Royal Bank and the Bank of St. Birgitta, which helps to relieve the Bank's financial situation. The King agrees to support the Bank, and to hold off asking for debt payments until the Bank's finances improve. Meanwhile, the reconstruction of Barcelona is half-way to completion, with the entire west side of the city ready for habitation. The Royal Family moves into the newly completed Royal Palace of Barcelona.
    • Portugal is saddened by the extreme disrespect of the payment of ten pounds of gold after the constant invasions of Portuguese ships.
    • OOC: I frankly could care less whether you accepted my apology or not, but refusing to accept it on the grounds of too little compensation for "constant attacks" is totally false, as this only happened once. I'd appreciate it if you stopped twisting the truth. By the way, 10lb of gold is worth about $200,000 in today's US currency. That's no small amount - this isn't £10 we're talking about. ~Tim
    • OOC: 200,000 is a little especially when it comes to countries, 200,000 is what you get in a minor lawsuit.
    • OOC: It's certainly more than enough to repair your ships. Look, if you don't want to accept it and continue to go around and around in circles over this, that's perfectly fine with me. ~Tim
    • It is sold to a Ligurian merchant.
  • Cologne: (OOC: Please disregard much of the stuff from last turn about “patents”. With respect to the patents, I realise this is very bad wording and patents weren’t given indefinitely. With your blessing, SwedenAustriaItaly and Papal States, I’d like to try again with my wording:
    • 1. Archbishop Dietrich II of Cologne applies urgently to the pope, asking the pope to write a Papal Bull granting Stelzner and his heirs and successors royalties on the design of a printing press
    • 2. For Sweden/Austria/Italy (who were all essentially offered the same deal): The Archbishop simply asks this country (Sweden/Austria/Italy) to agree to acknowledge Stelzner’s original design of the printing press, in return for being given the design.
    • Archbishop Dietrich II of Cologne went through a bout of sickness at the end of 1441 and thus can barely remember what happened. Accordingly, he takes much longer than expected to address any diplomatic concerns. This year, however, he hopes to accomplish something more productively.
      • Essen: Meanwhile, Abbess Sophia I of Essen has been working with Stelzner to put together a Lictionary along with further religious texts for Cologne’s many churches. She seems particularly interested in the offer given by Italy to use the printing press to distribute some of the recently-translated new works, but acknowledges that she supports the diplomacy put forward by Archbishop Dietrich II of Cologne and will await his next move.
  • Chimu Empire: The Empire continues working on a symbol and picture method of writing down the Chimu language. Research into new weapons continues, and more of the army is now armed with shields, swords and spears. The Chimu golden age reaches newer hights with the spread of wooden reinforced hulls on reed ships, allowing the speeding up and creation of a stronger mercantile industry on the coast and along the Empire's canals. Expansion to the south continues at a steady rate, with canals and irrigation systems and roads being built as the border goes farther southward. The Emperor begins buying new ships with the new hulls, forging the begining of the Imperial Fleet, numbering around eight ships. The Emperor's son turns 18, and his brother turns eight. The Crown Prince is wed to a Princess of the Ica-Nazca family, and he is given a son near the end of the year, ensuring the line of succession will continue. The Chimu Empire continues researching more ways to perfect the hulls of wooden fortified reed ships.
  • Earldom of Desmond: We watch the English Civil War carefully and try not to provoke either sides. To the emissaries from the English King, we tell them that we respect him and will stand by in this civil war and try to stay neutral unless we are threatened. Due to branches of Aragonian and Swedish banks in the Earldom, our economy prospers and we build up our military and our economy. We continue building roads and infrastructure in our Earldom as well as schools, churches and hospitals. Our overall population is estimated to be around 150-160,000 people meaning we can raise around 1125 warriors and six ships. Cork is prospering due to foreign investment and has a population of over 5000. Considering literacy problems, we attempt to build a library in Cork in order to store knowledge and encourage literacy. (The Cork Library shall be finished next turn). We continue fortifying our lands to defend from the Irish tribes/lords while we begin expanding the docks to accommodate for our expanding navy and trade fleet. We plan to building an arsenal in Desmond to store weapons for wartime for distribution, as well as making weapons. (Finished in 1444.) In response of the Irish tribes refusing our offer to unite we declare war on the O'Briens and the Burkes (about 40,000 to 50,000 population.) (map) and send our army to invade under a distant relative Richard Fitzgerald (made up, normal general, not great) and our navy under another distant relative Robert Fitzgerald (made up, normal). (Mod Response Required) ((Skyboi, you're my only hope))
  • Aragonese Diplomacy: We apologise for the Royal Bank's downsizing, but we are forced to begin withdrawing our Irish branch from Desmond. However, in its place we are willing to sell to Desmond whatever remains of the branch and to help set up a local bank. This does not, however, equate to a ceasing of trade, nor does it mean a cutting of relations. We hope that the government of Desmond understands.
    • Earldom of Desmond Diplomacy: We understand fully and buy up the remains of the bank. We set up a local bank called the Bank of Desmond and ask help in supporting it.
  • Totonac Empire: After a grand victory against Michoacan and Matlatzinco, Emperor Tepictoton decides to form the Tarascan Empire from the conquered lands of Michoacan and Matlatzinco. Emperor Tepictoton seeing the Aztec aggressive expansion, focuses west, wanting to expand the Tarascan Empire even further, readies his warriors and invades Coinan, Tonallan, Poncitlan and Cuitzeo with 55,000 warriors. We rapidly expand to the West building forts and towns. Helps the Tarascan Empire construct solid walls in its main cities. Emperor Tepictoton is glad that his new wife Anacaona gave birth to twin boys while he was on a campaign against Michoacan and Matlatzinco and named them Tepictoton II after his father and Acamapichtli after his grandfather. Metallurgy improves after the Tarascan Empire shared their Metallurgical secrets with us. Metal working continues to grow, with citizens being able to afford them, allowing more warriors to be modernly armed. Bronze short swords/fie machetes are purchased by more warriors, and research into new longer weapons and sheilds continues. Major roads are constructed and maintained throughtout the Empire to promote trade and ease transport of goods and armies, especially in the northern provinces. The Northern provinces are further integrated into the Empire. El Tajin market prospers, being in a major trade route, along with El Tajin having many visitors to witness its magnificence, turning into a major hub thanks to its proximity to Papantla. Also an estimate is made by a renowned scholar for our the population of our five biggest population centers, estimating that our capital Xallapan has around 120,000 population and is by far the biggest and the most populous city in the Empire, Cempoala has around 120,000 population and is now rebuild and economic life gets back on track again thanks to several projects in the area, Papantla has around 60,000 population with its market growing to support the new increase in trade, Colipa has around 25,000 population with its walls being praised by its citizens for their solidness and endurance and El Tajin has around 15,000 population, the vast majority of them are settlers from the whole Empire, aiming to receive the generous king's bounty for relocating there as well as new houses. The rights of non Totonacs continue to get revoked in favor of Totonacs, with the Mayan people being the only exemption. We continue trading minorities/non-Totonacs with the Aztecs to sacrifice to their gods in exchange for food, cattle, gold, diamonds and many other resources.
  • Tarascan Empire: Emperor Tepictoton crowns himself as Emperor of the Tarascan Empire. Emperor Tepictoton seeing the Aztec aggressive expansion, focuses west, wanting to expand the Tarascan Empire even further, readies his warriors and assists the Totonac Empire in its invasion of Coinan, Tonallan, Poncitlan and Cuitzeo with 1000 warriors. We rapidly expand to the west building forts and towns. Shares its all its metallurgy secrets with Totonacapan. Constructs solid walls in its main cities with the help of the Totonac Empire.
  • Ahom Kingdom: Susenphaa orders the building of a second unversity in Jorhat, while academics flock to the current university in Chariadeo. Roads are improved, and new schools are built. The library at Chariadeo is enlarged to store even more books. The arquebusier corps is further trained to reload quickly and have excellent accuracy.
  • Kingdom of Tondo: With the successful liberation war, and Tondo turns to the Ming as a tributary. With the recent passing of the beloved monarch, Rajah Gambang, the nation mourns. Diyang Kalangitan assumes the throne, and takes no man to be her husband. Instead, she declares that on the eve of her death, the nobility of Tondo, Ma-I, and Pangasinan shall have an electorate regarding the successor of the united realms of Tondo. Kalangitan further consolidates her poweriscreetely assigning political opponents to far-flung provinces of Tondo or to Tondo's vassals of Ma-I and Pangasinan, or to colonization attempts in Palawan, Busuang and Samar. The government of Tondo can be roughly described as a Federal Monarchy, with each province ruled by a council with members proportionate to the province's population. Diyang Kalangitan invites the Huang of Pangasinan, his daughter and Ma-I's regency council, and officials from every province to draft something akin to an OTL constitution, namely, the Saligang Batas ng Tondo at Nasasakupan Nito (Constitution of the sovereign Kingdom of Tondo and all its holdings and possessions). As Maynila is one of the richest cities in South East Asia, it is now high-time to create a lasting legacy for it. A series of bridges and canals connecting the Pasig and Tagik (OTL Taguig) Rivers and all their tributaries to provide acquatic transportation, ease movement of goods, and simply build bridges above the waterways to ease the transportation of people in the Greater Tondo Province (OTL Metro Manila). To prevent problems of income inequality and unequal development, selected families in the capital are given incentives of food and gold to relocate to developing towns and cities in Cavite, Romblon and Samar. A road network has already connected Tondo Province to Cavite, and a series of roads from southeastern and southern Luzon to Pangasinan has already began construction. Tondo metallurgical capabilities increase as blast furnaces and iron forges are built all around the state. The port of Maynila is further expanded, with the navy increasing by 25 small ships and seven war junks. Trade with nearby states continue. Tondo continues expansion in Samae, Palawan and Busuanga. 2000 additional soldiers are trained Diyang Kalangitan refuses to seat beside representatives from the local Japanese merchants during the drafting on the constitution, and representatives from Ma-I and Pangasinan also refuse to sit beside or near Japanese nationals. Gambang orders 300 ships to move to patrol the Visayas archipelago, mainly to protect the trade routes, and secretly to intimidate Cebu. Expansion into Palawan, Negros and Samar continues.
    • Huangdom of Ma-I: With Tondo's grace, Ma-I settles the western part of Busuanga Island, and dedicates 100 citizens there. Li Han thrives as a cultural and financial capital of Ma-I, while Beigang immediately becomes the second port of Tondo, and conducts trade regularly with nearby nations.
    • Huangdom of Pangasinan: With Tondo's grace, Pangasinan expands into Central and Northern Luzon, attempting to assimilate the mountain and Igorot tribes located nearby to access the massive agricultural treasure in the Banaue Rice Terraces and the farmlands of Central Luzon. The administrative capital city, Pangasinan, begins construction of a road connecting it to Maynila. Blast furnace construction continues, and a small defense fleet of 15 ships is allotted by Tondo to Pangasinan. Pangasinense traders report sightings of small islands west of Luzon, and scouts are sent by Pangasinan to verify their claims. Pangasinan claims these islands west of Mainland Luzon, now named as the Gambang Islands in honor of Rajah Gambang  (OTL Scarborough Shoal)
  • Mogadishu: The nation's income continues to grow, both from increased tariffs and from the Royal Trade Fleet. Our manufacturers expand and make more money. We further expand toward the Jubba River, as canals, dikes and ditches are being built. The land surrounding the Jubba-Shebelle Rivers becomes more fertile. 10,000 local tribesman and foreign settlers became citizens of our nation last year due to our policies of land reclamation and immigration attraction. We built cannons in our Chinese furnaces, which we received from China from Zheng He's trip. We continue to train our army.
  • Bahmanids: All the previous methods of economic warfare against Omani Gujarat are not only continued, but increased. Ali Nadeem Shah congratulates Ulugh Beg Mirza on his victories. Ali Nadeem Shah also sponsors some emerging Bahmanid shipping guilds, hoping to expand his realm's already great wealth.
  • Duchy of Thuringen: The city guard continues to defend the capital city of Erfurt. Our military grows by adding more recruits each year. We continue to trade again with our neighboring states. Farming goes well in our nation this year. The healthy population continues to increase by 3% each year. Karsten's improvement in the training area is continuing to show off. Our economy continues to try to rebuild itself from the collapse of 1439. We continue to invest in Ekehard's printing press, thinking it will help boost our economy of our nation back to what it used to be in 1438 before the collapse. With Bohemia distracted with the Ottomans we start to mobilize our troops in Hesse. We officially declare war on Hesse.
  • Brandenburg-Luxembourg: Prince Elector Johann now entering his mid 30s comes down with a major flu leading to a dementia that leads to his ultimate abdication and the accension of his eldest son Prince Elector Heinrich von Brandenburg becoming Heinrich III of Brandenburg and Henrich VIII of Luxembourg at the age of 19. As the new prince elector he reaffirms the Brandenburg pact which recognizes the autnomy of the landed nobility and of major cities aslong as troops and levies are provided in times of wars. The lands that once belonged to the Grand Duchy of Pomerania are formally turned into provinces of the Magrave of Brandeburg and majr efforts are made to improve the road systems connecting the Brandenburg heartland to the cities of the German coast now under Berlin's control. In an act of compromise mirroring that of his father Heinrich declares the right of freedom of worship within the Elector's territories and invites former Hussite preachers to public positions within the Universities of Berlin, Stettin, and Luxembourg to help create a more inclusive cultural and religious academic environment however Heinrich proclaims his steadfast devotion to the papal ways and to the Catholic Church. Major efforts are made to revamp the military under the energetic Prince Elector by incorporating more firearms into the elector's forces and to create a more proffessional force creating corps with a ratio of one gunman for every five pikeman and men-of-war mirroring the otl reforms of Hungarian king Matthias's Black Army. Heavy improvement of the artillery is also made using the tactics of the Hussite rebels from decades before including wagon transports and increased reliance on mobility of light cavalry. The Brandenburgish and Luxembourgish forces when fully mobilized will stand at a new 20,000 once the reforms are completed in times of war and it is thought that these reforms will be done within a decade. efforts to improve the metal works of Luxembourg begin and massive investments in artisans and metal workers begin along with the public funding of artisan and smithy guilds throughout the Elector's domains. Efforts to improve the navy also begin to protect the vast holdings along the German coast and to protect trade in the region. Efforts to transform Stettin into a major trading hub under Brandenburg guidance begin. A diplomatic expedition to Denmark, Sweden, The Teutonic Lands and to Burgundy is made to reaffirm the long standing trade relations in these countries and to create a trade bloc that can protect the Black Sea and North Sea trade. A request is made to speak with the King of Bohemia to re-address certain aspects in THE diplomatic relations between the two countries and to put aside long standing family feuds that ancestors of Heinreich aggravated. Heinrich and his advisory Council begin looking for a spouse for the young Elector to secure the line of sussession. 
    • Duke Philip III of Burgundy reaffirms his alliance with Brandenburg, and offers his 17 year old niece, Michelle, as a potential spouse.
  • Ottoman Sultanate: The sultan works to build schools across the Ottoman Empire and works on hiring people across the state. More Muslims are sent to the south and some Turks are sent to mix with the other Muslims in the areas. The army then is brought back to surround the city while the army tries to gain more troops to replace. With the loss of the city Murad goes into Ankara and works on his army and navy weaponry. The sultan then begins to work on trading with the Thrimids and the Caliphate. Murad begins to send traders past Thrimid's land to Afghanistan and some going into India. The sultan begins to work on making Ankara a new city as Murda said "Better then the other" as he works on making the city a trading center - while the army is trained. The sultan begins to work his military training. Slaves are sent to mosques and schools to learn Arabic and Ottoman Turkish and Quran and made told if they teach 50 people how to read and speak Ottoman Turkish and Arabic. We ask the Gurkani Sultanate for peace and to work on making a peace treaty. We have white peace with Thrimud.
    • Serbia: An army is amassing to march on the enemy. linking up with Wallachia. The state is seen a state of light.
      • Wallachia (Ottoman vassal): The sultan begins to create 800 more mosques - mostly in the South, and recruiting peasants for the army. More imams are sent to Serbia in hope of converting the population. The troops are ordered not to fire unless fired upon, the troops begin to work on defenses. The castle is now worked on by peasants. With the riots across the vassals the government is sent in to stop any riots but the government halts their construction of mosques (but already-built mosques will stay) but Wallachian Muslims are recommended to move down south and to spread across the green areas while they are recommended to then populate the area. The area is set up with defenses to stop the crusader army. The people in their are seen as heroes and the Ottoman send an envoy to thank the people
      • Epirus (Ottoman vassal): The state begins to send aid to civilians after Sultan Mehmed is heard saying "Let the Christians, Jews and anyone get food ... so long as they stay with the state. the Ottoman army sends 10,000 Turks to mingle with the population and to thank the people.
  • The Archduke of Austria, Albert V & II, officially sends out emissaries to the remaining Bavarian monarchs, asking they swear fealty to him (Bavaria-Landshut, Bavaria-Straubing, Bavaria-Ingolstadt) and akgnowledge Albert as Archduke of Bavaria. The Requests come with not-so-subtle threats of military force to enforce vassalization. IN the Meanwhile, An Emissary is sent out to the Count of the Palatinate, asking if he has a daughter he is willing to wed to Ferdinand, Albert's heir.(MOD RESPONSE PLEASE). Meanwhile, Austria finds Cologne's terms amicable and receives the designs for the Printing Press. It is mandated as law that any printing shop or company must first obtain an official license from the Crown in order to gain the designs (5% of which are promised to [insert inventor's name here] until his death) to be renewed annually. Within a month, the first printing shop is set up in Austria after purchasing a printing license from the Crown.
  • The Count of the Palatinate has no daughters to wed Ferdinand.
    • Fair enough (I assume that also means he doesn't have any daughters slightly too young to marry either). How about the Bavarias, any answer from them?
    • Cologne Dip: Essen offers Austria a trade deal as a sign of good faith, with reduced taxes on printed goods traveling between the two countries (to further the overall knowledge), in return for Austria implementing Adelphinian Reforms as per the promises made in the Concord of Luxembourg.
      • As the Concord is sanctioned by the pope, the Archduke of Austria has no objections with helping adopt these reforms, and sees the lowering of tarrifs on printed goods in the best interests of the Holy Roman Empire.
  • Iroquois Confederacy: With the threat of Tadodaho still existing but not eminent at all, Chief Notaku starts setting the Confederacy back to its normal workings. The western border is still heavily guarded but the Wichita braves are sent home with valuables thanks for their service. We continue expanding our urban centers. Because of where it sits between Lakes Erie and Ontario, the village of Tonawanda sees an influx of citizens over the years, growing into a large town. It is one of few urban centers in the ever-growing Iroquois Confederacy. Seeing it as a "gateway to the west", Chief Notaku sends resources to build up Tiohero (OTL Toledo area) into a proper trade city, predicting that the project will take five years to complete.
  • Benin: Expansion of Benin's infrastructure under Oba Isikhuan's ambitious development scheme continues, increasing agricultural development in the Malian provinces and economic growth in the new cities. The former Malian capital of Niani is the focus of the project, with its structures torn down and the city rebuilt according to Bini city planning laws. Four public schools are built in one of the four new districts of the city, and a series of public baths and water canals built to supply the people with fresh water and sanitary conditions. As the medical knowledge of the Bini clergy is expanded as a result of the education at the Imperial Academy in Edo, many members of the clergy seek to build places of healing for subjects in the new cities. The first hospital sponsored by the clergy is built in Edo's market district, where access to medical herbs and tools for cutting are available. A second hospital is to built in Eko and another in the city of Enugu, while others will be built in Timbuktu, Gao, Niani, Djenne, Kokoro, and Ziguinchor. The introduction of schools and hospitals in the newly conquered lands helps to promote Bini culture and ideals, helping to gain support for Bini rule in these lands. Most lands within the eastern half of Benin are connected by roads, and the majority of cities are built in line with Benin's city planning schemes. Under the new system of city building, the square cities with octagonal zoning and stone buildings and public baths have proven to be much cleaning and safer to reside in that the old mud and straw houses with open sewage systems. Paved brick roads and fresh water supplies have allowed for a population boom in Bini cities, with the capital city of Edo alone boasting a population of 500,000 residents. Expansion of the successful building programs of the eastern empire have been expanded to the western half, and thus far with much success. Kuzirism has been gaining much ground in the new territories, and with the knowledge of the prosperity in Benin spreading, meaning Jolof have hitched themselves to the ideologies of their new masters. Benin continues to expand by 10,000 kilometers into Ghana along the coastline, seeking to grab the fertile lands for its settlers. The natives are quickly expelled or enslaved, and the women and children doled out as trophies as is customary. As Benin's military grows in size and complexity, many war chiefs within the army seek to reorganize the military for large-scale deployments to new lands as the empire's prospects within West Africa deem. With the lack of local or foreign dangers, many of the warriors are shifted to the border to enforce the territorial sovereignty of the empire, while also supporting construction projects at home as is their duty. As the number of faithful in West Africa begins to outnumber the pagan population, thousands of Kuzir adherents seek to spread the word of Kuzirism to other lands yet to be enlightened, and many turned to the lands of Africa as a prospective territory for their work. Many have gained access to old maps drawn up by the elderly Iyase Ezeani from his exploration of the Congo, and seek to spread the word within the Congo territories. Others take ships to East Africa to preach there, and some move into the interior to reach isolated kingdoms such as Buganda and Rwanda. From Sofala, many missionaries have traveled inland to preach to the Shona people of Great Zimbabwe. Yet more missionaries begin preaching in Kongo and the Swahili city-states, and others look to uplifting the tribes of southern Africa with the teachings of Ewuare about the nature of Oghodua. Within the same region of East Africa, Bini merchants continue to expand their domination of the local trade routes from their locations in Sofala, leveraging their superior trading vessels to gain a competitive edge over the smaller local vessels. Another 60,000 slaves are shipped from Benin to the Ottoman Empire as per the agreement between the two countries.
  • Mayapan: Aztec expansion is heavily but discreetly monitored and preliminary defenses are prepared in case of war. Emperor Atlahua continues rallying the citizens of the nation for, what he believes, is an imminent war against the Aztecs. He stirs up nationalist sentiment with the citizens, increasing unity between the city-states. Integration of the southern city-states into the League is continued by the High Council. Each new state is expected to supply men to train and serve in the national army. The council seeks to improve commerce and communication between the many settlements of the Yucatan by constructing and maintaining roads between them. Work continues to renovate and update existing buildings, roads and to create plans for future upkeep and renovations.
  • Rwanda: The Kingdom works on its infrastructure and road system. We are working on military campaigns to assimilate surrounding tribes. We issue a final warning to surrounding tribes to pay tribute or accept Rwanda's rule
  • Bohemia: Hearing of our initial army's defeat in the Balkans, the reserve forces, numbering near 30,000 are sent in to regroup with the retreating initial army (Mod Response: I need a number on how many men are left.) The army launches a second assault on Belgrade to seize Serbia for a second time. Emperor Wenceslaus V is heard declaring, "Gott mit uns!" in regards to the war. We send a delegation to Poland, offering the estate of Wallachia in exchange for their assistance in the war against the Ottomans. (Mod Response) We also ask the pope to call a crusade.
  • None are left. As for Poland, it will most definitely join the war. -Skyboi.
  • Papal States: The Papacy is displeased with the current events that have taken place in Italy, and privately confers with the pope to formulate a grand strategy and determine future steps. For now, all that is done is to see that the Papacy's garrisons are well manned and maintained and that the unity of the present Church is upheld in thought and deed. With the disaster of the Bohemian army, the pope begins work to rectify the situation and prevent Hungary or the Balkans from falling under the sway of heathen forces. As such, the pope is not actively able to write the legislation that Cologne requests at this present time. 
    • In Constantinople, the Papal commander continues to assist in repairs and fortifications. The disaster that befell the Bohemians means that the Papal forces are on alert in case there is another siege.
    • Cologne Dip: Archbishop Dietrich II thanks the pope for his response and awaits the legislation eagerly. If there is anything Dietrich II can do to speed up the process, he would be happy to assist.
  • Croatia: The Kingdom prepares itself as the possibility of a war comes closer with the Heroic Bohemians. The Sabor urges the king to elect a man who would help the King himself govern. This allows the King to delegate his power more efficiently, even though he is also limited by the Sabor.
    • Republic of Ragusa: The Republic's trade expands evidently as there is no real competition on the seas and the Adriatic becomes more or less swarmed with Ragusan ships
  • King Mikkael of Norway: I am torn between legimitizing my bastard son Johnathan or not. Upon hearing news of my wife giving birth to a daughter, Elsa, I know this child is not mine, thus I know she violated the sanctity of marriage, so I annhul our marriage and denounce Emma and Eric. With this denouncement of Eric, I legimitize Johnathan as a Gyldenlove, and I proclaim him my successor and Crown Prince of Norway. I also reveal Jonathan is the son of me and Joanna the princess of Sweden. I call upon Jonathans relatives in the royal house of Sweden to support him as the Crown Prince of Norway. the retilatiaon of the White Witch Emma, I raise 8000 troops to defend Norway from a Danish invasion. I also call upon Russia to support us in this war as allowing Denmark to unite Norway is a threat to their power. After trying a declaration of war by Emma I demonizes the Danes in Norway and state, Eric was conceived by a Danish noble in a plot to have Danish dominance in Norway. I invade the Hebrides with 1480 troops from our colonies.
    • Russian Diplomacy: Russia sends a tithe of 30 gold and a pet goat named Commander Shepderd to Norway, in addition to 30,000 men willing and able to fight for Norway's right to party.
  • Queen Emma of Denmark: I give birth to Elsa of Denmark this year, and I reveal her to be the daughter of Gustav Vasa of Sweden, and I legitimize Elsa as the Princess of Denmark. With Mikkael annulling our marriage and him legitimizing his bastard and proclaiming Johnathan as the successor to the throne of Norway, I declare war on King Mikkael of Norway to restore the succession to the throne to our legitimate heir, Crown Prince Eric of Denmark, thus I raise 8000 troops to invade Norway and I call upon the Vasa family to support me. We do not, however, invade Norway until Sweden allows us to invade through their territory. 200 troops are in the Hebrides to defend against the Norwegian invasion and I send five ships and 800 troops to defend the Hebrides.
  • Ethiopia: Zera begins to mints more coins to help spread trade even more. He sends missions to Benin and Mali to help increase African trade. Zera sends people up the blue Nile to set up farming outpost, but he sends one group further to find where the Nile separates into the white and blue Nile and sends them down the white Nile, setting up a farther off colony. The southern province capital struggles to get off the ground so funds are diverted to help it thrive.
  • Portugal: Colonizes Cape Verde. (Really busy with work and life.)
  • In the Kingdom of Italy, the Christian clerics under the guidance of the Archbishop of Milan agree to the terms and conditions espoused by Cologne and Essen. Now, with the support of Venetian and Florentine merchants, the plans are converted into an actual printing press. Immediately, the clerics begin publishing Bibles in Latin and the vernacular. Difficulty arises, however, when the King of Italy, Niccolò Maria Visconti, meets with the clerics and finds that each region of Italy speaks its own form of vernacular, greatly increasing the difficulty in producing copies of the Bible. To this end, the King establishes the Royal Academy of Italy (Reale Accademia d'Italia), which is tasked with harmonizing the different dialects and languages that comprise Italian. Raised on Petrarch and Dante, the King orders that they are to become the models after which the Italian tongue is to be based. The wisest of linguists and religious scholars gather at the Academy to begin formulating a common tongue. Knowing the his son, Matteo, will someday inherit Naples as well as Italy, Niccolò Maria invites Neapolitan speakers to the Academy, as well. Furthermore, the King continues to tour throughout Italy advocated for remaining within the Holy Roman Empire, and the clamor to secede has largely died down.
  • In the Kingdom of Naples, Queen Mary Anjou continues to apply pressure to the Duchy of Naxos to rejoin as a vassal of Naples. A bit offended by the lack of response, she mobilizes the navy stationed in Cephalonia and Corfu to approach the Naxian homeland. Meanwhile, hearing of the heroic efforts of the Bohemian troops and sensing the ability to make dramatic gains in Greece, she sneakily moves 11,000 men into the vassal state of Croia (Krujë), and then declares war upon the Ottoman Empire. The army marches from Croia, led by the Prince of Croia, Stefan Thopia, past Berat and into Epirus, where they are met by a small Ottoman contingent. Defeating the Ottomans, the Neapolitan forces set themselves up as the "liberators" of Epirus, and begin deconstructing the infamous mosques that dot the region.
    • Duchess Eleanor of Naxos apologizes to Queen Mary about the current lack of response about the Neapolitan-Naxian Problem. However, no answer can be given to the Queen, as Duke John is off to war and there is no response from him.
  • After the (assumed) wins over the the Ottoman Empire and the Abbasid Caliphate, the Army of Naxos gains more troops from Cyprus and the Morea, causing the army to reach 3000 men in the Morea and 75 ships at Cyprus. The 3000 men in the Morea attack the Principality of Achaea, in order to fully control the Peloponesse. The Navaresse Company of 1000 men are left in the Morea to defend the land. Meanwhile, in Cyprus, 25 ships stay to defend the island, as the other 50 ships move to siege Beirut. Finally, Duke John II hears of the birth of his new children, the twins Alfonso 'Alphonso' Crispo and Fiorenza 'Florence' Crispo. He is overjoyed at this news, though is greatly troubled at the news of the Neapolitan-Naxian Problem. He decides to wait until after the war to make a decision about the Neapolitans.
  • Papal States: The Papacy is displeased with the current events that have taken place in Italy, and privately confers with the pope to formulate a grand strategy and determine future steps. For now, all that is done is to see that the Papacy's garrisons are well manned and maintained and that the unity of the present Church is upheld in thought and deed. With the disaster of the Bohemian army, the pope begins work to rectify the situation and prevent Hungary or the Balkans from falling under the sway of heathen forces. As such, the pope is not actively able to write the legislation that Cologne requests at this present time. 
    • In Constantinople, the Papal commander continues to assist in repairs and fortifications. The disaster that befell the Bohemians means that the Papal forces are on alert in case there is another seige.

1443

A man only known as Dmitrii begins squatting his way through Eastern Europe, searching for the fabled armor, Adi Das.

With the heroic act of the Bohemian forces and the concurrent invasions led by Poland, Bohemia and Naple. The Christian peoples subdued by the Ottomans begin to express their discontent, especially since the numerous mosques built in their countries disrupt their way of life.

Richard, Duke of York, builds upon his open revolt against the King of England and Duke of Brittany. By promising independence to the Scottish lands, he has secured their support. He also has effective control over the North of England. His army continues to advance toward London, awaiting confrontation from Richard III Montfort.

American players continue to be implausible. 1) Languge barriers between tribes and conquered peoples seem to be either glossed over or outright ignored. 2) Metalworking is far more advanced than it should be in most cases. Metalworking is far more advanced in the Andes than the rest of the Americas, and North America never progressed beyond native copper. 3) Concepts such as vassal bnations, puppet nations and personal unions did not exist in the Americas. 3) Urbanization is very, very rare, and nearly non-existant North of the Rio Grande. The animals of burden that allow large cities to form at a rapid pace don't exist in the Americas. The best beast of burden the Americas have is the llama, exclusive to South America. For those of you in North America, the only beast of burden you have, is a human being. This is not to say Urbanization is impossible, but it is a slow, limited process.

North America has dogs. Also a couple turns ago, I attempted to tame (not domesticate) some young bison, but never got a response. - Kaiser  

There's been a serious lack of modding for North America. - Slad

  • The Gurkani Sultanate: Sultan Ulugh Beg Mirza continued his rule over the Sultanate. The Gurkani population rose to about 24 million with the people flocking to cities like Herat, Isfahan, Gamrun, Qazvin, Bukhara, Tabriz and Iskenderun; primarily due to their strategic position in the spice trade. The military was primarily composed of medium-to-heavy cavalry, composite bow, lance, mace, and sword. Heavy cavalrymen wore plated chain mail or metal lamellar armor, with their horses also wearing leather or metal lamellar barding. The infantry was equipped with daggers and swords to be utilised in close combat against the enemy and elephants as well as carts were used for the transportation of supplies. Cannons were constructed to serve as siege weaponry whilst experimental muskets were beginning to be developed. Naval bases were established at Iskenderun, Trabzon and Gamrun to establish the presence of the Gurkani fleet in the Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea and the Persian Gulf respectively, keen on controlling any piracy. The Gurkani Navy developed galleys and carracks to augment the smaller patrol fleets. Agriculture and commerce were at the Sultanate's forepoint, with wheat, rice and barley being amongst the largest produced crops. To prevent the Sultanate from ever getting hit by a major famine, the individual Amirs also engaged in the storage of food supplies, which would be utilized in case of famine or otherwise exported. Fishery was promoted as well as it helped in sustaining the fishery villages that were present along the coast, as well as the major port cities of Iskenderun, Basra, Gamrun and Trabzon. The Sultanate mined large amounts of silver and gold, to serve as currency as well as ornaments and jewellery. Importance was also given on the development of proper roads for the merchants utilizing the trade routes through the Sultanate, with all caravans being armed and protected with a small detachment of guards. Meanwhile, the construction of educational madrassahs continued throughout the Empire, with the sultan keen on spreading education and knowledge amongst the populace of the Sultanate. The sultan sought to replicate the Islamic Golden Age that existed during the period of the Abbasids prior to the Mongol Invasion, and accordingly funded the teaching of Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, with Algebra, Geometry, Astronomy, Anatomy and Medicine being of prime importance. The Sultanate continued to expand its territories into the Caucasus and the Persian Gulf islands. The war had ended and whilst the people had happily celebrated their victory, they could not, of course forget the dead. As such, a general funeral was held in major cities throughout the Empire for all those that had died in the war including Muhammad Mirza, the Sultans cousin; Hafsa Hatun, the Sultan's sister-in-law; Ibrahim Mirza, the sultan's brother; Shaheen Muzaffarid, the Sultan's daughter-in-law; Nader Shah Mirza, the Sultan's son and Suleiman Shah Mirza, the Sultan's grandson. Meanwhile, fortifications in and around Mosul and Baghdad continued to increase due to the general threat of another Abbasid Invasion. Meanwhile, with the regional enemies occupied with the war in Europe, 150,000 troops invaded Balochistan. By the end of the year, Ahmad Sultan's wife gave birth to a son who was named Faisal Sultan. 
    • Jalayirid Sultanate: Sultana Saima Daula continued her reign over the Sultanate. Acting as a vassal to the Gurkani Sultanate, she would only be answerable to the Gurkani Amir. The military and the navy were developed along the same lines as their Gurkani counterparts, with a major naval base constructed at Iskenderun where the Jalayirid fleet was also situated. Jalayirid authorities continue to work on the construction of a fleet at İskenderun, working side by side with Castilian authorities. The Jalayirid Sultana, Rukhsana Daula would continue to develop the trade route leading from his Mediterranean port of İskenderun to his Persian Gulf port of Basra, hoping to make it much more advanced and efficient. Sultana Saima Daula gives birth to a pair of twins, a son and a daughter. The son is given the name Suleiman Shah Mirza, in remembrance of Suleiman Shah Mirza; the two-year-old grandson of the Sultan Ulugh Beg who had died during the Uzbek takeover of Samarkand. The daughter is named Shaheen Mirza, in remembrance of Sultan Ulugh Begs daughter-in-law who had also died during the Uzbek takeover of Samarkand. 
    • Khedivate of Trabzon: Amir Alexios IV Komnenos continued his reign over the Sultanate. Acting as a vassal to the Gurkani Sultanate, he would only be answerable to the Gurkani Amir. The military and the navy were developed along the same lines as their Gurkani counterparts, with a major naval base constructed at the city of Trabzon, where the Trabzon fleet was also situated. Trabzoni authorities continue to work on the construction of a fleet at Trabzon, working side by side with Castilian authorities. The Trabzon Amir, Alexios IV Komnenos would continue to develop the trade route leading from his Black Sea port of Trabzon, connecting it to the city of Tabriz, hoping to make the spice trade routes much more advanced and efficient. Mahmud Mirzas wife, Julia Komnenos gives birth to a son who is named Sikandar Mirza. 
  • Duchy of Thuringen: The city guard continues to defend the capital city of Erfurt. Our military grows by adding more recruits each year. We continue to trade again with our neighboring states. Farming goes well in our nation this year. The healthy population continues to increase by 3% each year. Karsten's improvement in the training area is continuing to show off. Our economy continues to try to rebuild itself from the collapse of 1439. We continue to invest in Ekkehard's printing press, thinking it will help boost our economy of our nation back to what it used to be in 1438 before the collapse. With Bohemia still distracted with the Ottomans we continue to mobilize our troops more further into Hesse. Since we destroy the Hesse forces on the border we move more toward the center of the nation.
  • In Aragon, the Royal Bank of Barcelona begins its tentative recovery. In an effort to recoup funds, the bank temporarily ceases giving out new loans, and minor branches in Aragon and Castile are closed. The head office of BRB Castile in Madrid announces the closure of ten branches throughout Castilian territories, including the branch in Liguria. The primary Castilian branches in Toledo, Tangiers, Madrid, Leon, and Granada remain open. In Aragon the main bank in Barcelona, as well as the regional branches in Valencia, Majorca, Sicily and Sardinia remain open, while the minor offices are closed. This significant downsizing causes a fall in the value of the bank's assets, but it is hoped that it will benefit the bank's survival in the long run. Trade with Sweden through the Bank of St. Birgitta continues. Meanwhile, the reconstruction of Barcelona is progressing smoothly, and some of the temporary villages have been dismantled for use as building material for the city itself. All government institutions have moved back into Barcelona. We affirm our neutrality in the War of the Richards, and after the war has ended we will continue to develop relations with the victor. Meanwhile, in light of Portugal's refusal to accept a genuine apology from the King and his generous compensation, we secretly begin making preparations for a defensive war, should one break out between Iberia and Portugal. We urge the Duke of Naxos to reach a compromise with Naples, for the sake of his children, and we also continue to encourage Castile to quietly mobilise against the emerging Portuguese threat.
  • Cherokee Collective: In 1429, an elder named Walela began questioning ideas of a united tribe. This had been considered before, but the idea had never been taken seriously. His powerful words and particularly vocal speeches, however, began to sway the tribes of the region. His beliefs had been heard for miles around. Now these tribes responded to his summons to unite, after a great deal of conflict managed to compromise on the particular deities and their names. So, in 1443, the united tribes became the first Collective, with Walela as its first Grand Chief.
    • Chief Kinnekasus of the Wichita: Sends his greetings and requests a trade agreement of birch bark in exchange for Wichita bison meat.
    • Chief Notaku of the Iroquois: We request an alliance with our great neighbors to the south. For too long have our people been divided. We offer our knowledge of oil, along with great vases full of it, as a gift.
  • The Wichita Confederacy: Decides after a lengthy date to agree with the Iroquois proposal, and gives all but the most recent and innovative knowledge of copper metalurgy and begin building forts in our new territory. We begin a colossal project in the west: we begin linking our westernmost chain of forts with walls in order to create defenses in case the southern savages or the Crow look toward our territory. It's estimated that it would take three years if we used mud bricks, five if we implement a mud/log hybrid, eight if we use a log/stone hybrid, and nine if we use all stone. We opt toward the log/Stone hybrid as it should be more stable than a stone wall. We spend the rest of the year quarrying stone and cutting large trees down and moving supplies. Chief Kinnekasus prepares the nation for his death, consolidating power for his son, in order for his son to have a smooth succession. 
    • Iroquois Dip: In thanks, we send ten canoes and one barge loaded with birch bark and furs to your capital.
  • Iroquois Confederacy: With the threat of Tadodah dying down, Chief Notaku continues to have the border regularly patrolled but focus shifts back to urbanization. We begin construction of a holy village on the island of Hanowa (three turns) (big island OTL Champlain) with the goal to turn Nowadaga into the religious epicenter for the Iroquois Nation. To celebrate Onatah's 73rd birthday, Chief Notaku constructs a school on the island so his mother can continue to teach the ways of shamanism. He invites people from all tribes to learn here. To reach the island, a new bridge is constructed. Using canoes lashed together and covered with layers of birch bark, this bridge is symbolic to the Iroquois. It represents the bridge that connects all People, the Creator. Great totems are also raised, depicting the Iroquois creation story. Construction on Tiohero continues (four turns), with totem poles as tall as the trees and as wide as eight men standing at its gates. These totems will depict the story of Chiefs Akaitcho and Notaku and the founding of the Confederacy. With the new knowledge of copper, we begin mining for it in OTL Vermont and New Hampshire. In secret: Degotoga, the chief's son, travels along with the barges to the Wichita to discuss the creation of a completely unified people of OTL North America. To do this, we must use the strength of our current alliance to bring all tribes under our banners. We also suggest that the Cherokee be brought in but at a later date, we must first see where their path leads them. This alliance would not only strive to unify all native peoples but to also defend our lands from any invaders. Chief Notaku also recruits members of, non-Iroquois, tribes who emigrated to the Confederacy to teach his advisors their native tongues. Once their education is complete (2 years), they will be sent out throughout the surrounding tribes to teach them the tongue of the Iroquois.
    • Wichita Dip: Chief Kinnekasus agrees with this idea. However, insists that it cannot be implemented until we have more knowledge of the people, cultures, and faiths both under our banners and independent. With this he proposes that a great Temple city be built were shamans and scholars can gather and pool their knowledge in a place where anyone has access. He also suggests that an expedition of canoe and barge be sent out to gather the shape of the coast of our homeland.
    • Due to years of trade along the coast, we can start an expedition south with relative peace. The great Ohio River meets with the Mississippi River in your Cahokia lands. Being two major water ways for our people, we suggest that the new city be constructed in that region. The city must remain neutral, led by a council of leaders sent from all nations.
    • We agree and send supplies carried by many small wagons pulled by dog teams and plan buildings for metalurgy, fauna, flora, religion, language, culture, history, art, and transportation. We also plan a dock to construct a large canoe to carry supplies for a long journey.
  • Korea continues to experience affluence under a meritocratic bureaucracy headed by the monarch Yi Do. The social strata  becomes increasingly vague, while the yangban are definitely the top, the other castes are now roughly equal. More people, regardless of caste, become civil servants – traditionally a task only given to yangban nobles. Still, the yangban are the only caste that is eligible to be appointed into government positions. With Confucianism in its traditional form no longer imposed, the role of women in Korean society continues to return to that enjoyed during Goryeo and Silla. Mahayana Buddhism under the Yi sect, which incorporates Confucian values and Muist rites, becomes increasingly ingrained into Korean culture. Seeking to mirror the economic sophistication of the Ming, the commercialization and augmentation of the Korean economy continues with vigor. Mercantile activities are promoted, with wealthy merchants patronizing the arts and literature. People flock to cities to work in industrial complexes, textiles and handicrafts. Buildings are upscaled in beauty and sophistication to reflect Korea's growing affluence, while more people are partaking in education. Korea expands vigorously into Manchuria, assimilating local peoples into Korean society. A settlement is built next to Shintoashima, named Bukgyeong, established as the administrative city of the Ryojeo province. Thousands of settlers are sent to Bukgyeong to populate it. Yi Do sends its fourth batch of tribute to the Ming, as well as a group of emissaries to do prostrations under his name him. Many ships and troops are stationed in Busan, in anticipation for a future Sino–Korean conquest of Japan in retaliation for its attempt to invade Korea decades earlier. Maritime patrols along the Korea strait increase, monitoring Japanese activity, especially in the island of Tsushima.
  • Totonac Empire: After a grand victory against Coinan, Tonallan, Poncitlan and Cuitzeo, Emperor Tepictoton continues his campaign to expand the Tarascan Empire and unite the Tarascans, invades Azmola, Ayutitlan, Colimotl and Xilotan with 55,000 warriors. We rapidly expand to the West building forts and towns. Helps the Tarascan Empire construct solid walls in its main cities. Metal working continues to grow, with citizens being able to afford them, allowing more warriors to be modernly armed. Bronze short swords/fie machetes are purchased by more warriors, and research into new longer weapons and sheilds continues. Major roads are constructed and maintained throughtout the Empire to promote trade and ease transport of goods and armies. Emperor Tepictoton announces lower taxation in Colipa, to help the city grow, as well as new areas open for the city's expansion, which are shielded by the new expanded walls of Colipa. Also the King's bounty is offered to new residents of Colipa and by the end of the year 5.000 new residents move to Colipa and Colipa prospers more than ever. The Northern provinces are further integrated into the Empire. The temples in El Tajin are renovated and now serve for all kinds of religious activities. Also an estimate is made by a renowned scholar for our the population of our five biggest population centers, estimating that our capital Xallapan has around 120,000 population, Cempoala has around 120,000 population, Papantla has around 60,000 population, Colipa has around 30,000 population and El Tajin has around 15,000 population. The rights of non Totonacs continue to get revoked in favor of Totonacs, with the Mayan people being the only exemption. We continue trading minorities/non-Totonacs with the Aztecs to sacrifice to their gods in exchange for food, cattle, gold, diamonds and many other resources.
  • Tarascan Empire: Emperor Tepictoton incorporates the conquered lands of Coinan, Tonallan, Poncitlan and Cuitzeo into the Tarascan Empire. Emperor Tepictoton seeing the Aztec aggressive expansion, focuses west, wanting to expand the Tarascan Empire even further, readies his warriors and assists the Totonac Empire in its invasion of Azmola, Ayutitlan, Colimotl and Xilotan with 5000 warriors. We rapidly expand to the west building forts and towns. Shares all its metallurgy secrets with Totonacapan. Constructs solid walls in its main cities with the help of the Totonac Empire.
    • After our victory against Azmola, Ayutitlan, Colimotl and Xilotan, they are incorporated into the mighty Tarascan Empire.
  • King Olaf of Sweden: As my father, Kristjen, abdicates and retreats to the hunting grounds of Öland, I see the worst nightmare unfold upon our country: The Danish and Norwegian army at our doorstep, to destroy them all. Even more scares me the Russian army, supporting the Norwegian power claim. My wife, Isabella, gives birth to two lovely children: Adele and Nils. As it is revealed that my sister, Johanna, had a bastard with King Mikkael of Norway, she is sent to an abbey in Uppsala, to be held under the protection of the Archbishop of Uppsala, Knut Bosson. My loved brother, whom I suspect of fathering Elsa, the new daughter of Queen Emma, is sent as a faithful ambassador to the Archbishop of Cologne, Dietrich II of Moers. The Swedish army is raised and under the pressure of the strong Russian army, we declare war on Denmark. In a letter to Queen Emma, however, we state that our hand was forced by the Norwegian-Russian alliance, and that Emma will have her revenge on Norway someday. That I swear her by my life. I raise 10,000 men and join with the Norwegian and Russian armies in the advance for Ronneby in Blekinge. The Swedish navy embargoes Bornholm, and asks for a surrender of the island. On another note, I send a secret letter to the Scottish rebels, offering them to take Dundee and Aberdeen freely, in exchange for letting the Hebrides remain Norwegian. For that, I offer them and the Duke of York, a loan (Mod Response Required for the Scottish rebels). The Bank of St. Birgitta, suffering from the collapse, closes the branches in Dundee, Edinburgh, Aberdeen, Cork and Uppsala. I reaffirm our alliance with Brandenburg and Burgundy and ask them NOT to join this war, as this war is a petty war between two married. I call this war in my letter the Marriage War. Prince Eric is held hostage in the Stockholm palace, however, I go to play with him as often as I can, and he is treated like any son or sibling of mine. I fear for his health, for he has become delusional, and he sees ghosts and spirits. I appoint a meeting with the two trusted Oxenstierna brothers, Nils and Bengt. I appoint Bengt High Chancellor of Sweden and Nils is declared Duke of Gotland. I ask Chancellor Bengt to look around the country to establish a council of advisors, called the Smådag (Small Council). I am pleased to hear that the University of Uppsala will be ready for study next year. We ask King Niccolo of Italy to send an artist up in Scandinavia to be the royal artist.
    • Duke of York: We don't require a loan at this time but if we do Sweden shall be our first choice.
    • Cologne Dip: Archbishop Dietrich II welcomes King Olaf’s brother with open arms.
  • Earldom of Desmond: We watch fearfully the civil war in England, happy that we are safe for a while but fearful of the victor's designs on our nation. We are neutral in this conflict in fear of England's allies though we take in a limited amount of refugees from the war (2000). However, we are pleased to announce that we have won the war against the O'Brien's and the Burkes and have annexed them. Currently, the Earl is focused on internal affairs with the Earldom. With the newly established Bank of Desmond, we embark on an ambitious quest of building up our duchy. First a large paved road network will connect all major towns and cities together, while smaller roads will be diverted to villages. There will be regular toll posts where a standard fee will be exacted based on number of people, age and cargo. The roads have already started in most of our territory, though now we are building on a larger scale using gangs of POW's and criminals (Road network finished in 1446). There are also plans into expanding and restructuring the town of Cork into a proper full-fledged city. We plan for there to be broad streets, gardens and parks, while we plan to build sewers beneath the streets to ensure proper sanitation. The city will be divided into several sections, commons for people to live, Administration for the town hall and the government of the Earldom, Industrial for the fledging industrial sector, Merchant district/market area and the dockyards. This expansion and upgrade of the city is expected to be finished in (1446) while the docks are also meant to be upgraded with extra space for building ships and docking ships. We take several loans from the banks to cover the expenses though we mainly use loot from the tribal wars to cover expenses. Currently the population of Cork is up to 6000. We try to make Cork the trade capital of Ireland by building a large marker place in Cork, and offering tax cuts for merchants who set up in Cork. We continue to fortify our lands, as well as increase our economy and military power. Building up of infrastructure is also continued. With the new system of hospitals across the country being built we believe the growth rate is up 2% per year. The current population is judged to be around 200,000. We have heard of the interesting device known as the printing press and request the diagrams for the press from Cologne to help aid the Earldom's prosperity. (Cologne please respond) We now decide that York will win this war and it'll be best to side with him. We offer him our military support, in exchange for the recognisation of our independence, a non-aggression pact and to give us the Pale.
    • Cologne Dip: Archbishop Dietrich II refers to the standing printing press offer: if this country will acknowledge (in writing) and respect the fact that Stelzner is responsible for the original design, and allow a small percentage of royalties to Stelzner and his heirs and successors as per the anticipated Papal Bull, they will be given the secrets of the design. Furthermore, Dietrich II refers to the trade deal proposed by Essen and hopes that Desmond will be amiable to such a deal: in return for implementing Adelphinian Reforms as per the promises made in the Concord of Luxembourg (with the Hussites), Cologne and Essen offer a trade deal with reduced taxes on printed goods travelling between the two countries to further the overall knowledge.
    • Duke of York: While we are pleased to have the Earl of Desmond's support we reject the offer to surrender the Pale though we do recognise the Earldom's independence.
  • Cologne: For any country interested in securing the designs to the printing press (DesmondBohemia, Italy, Sweden, etc.), Archbishop Dietrich II of Cologne makes a standing offer: if this country will acknowledge (in writing) and respect the fact that Stelzner is responsible for the original design, and allow a small percentage of royalties to Stelzner and his heirs and successors as per the anticipated Papal Bull, they will be given the secrets of the design. Dietrich II is satisfied that this will adequately protect his treasured citizen and lead to general success for the printing press in Europe. Civilisation is moving forward, before Dietrich’s very eyes. His philosophy is paying off: the wait is worth it! Meanwhile, Cologne politely reiterates its request to the Papal States that the pope write the aforementioned Papal Bull as soon as his Holiness is able.
    • Essen: Bibles, the Book of Adelphinian Reforms, and other holy texts are distributed to all Churches in nearby countries who have taken up Adelphinian Reforms. Further, Abbess Sophia offers a deal to Brandenburg, AustriaDesmond and Italy in return for that country implementing Adelphinian reforms as per the promises made in the Concord of Luxembourg (with the Hussites), Cologne and Essen offer a trade deal with reduced taxes on printed goods travelling between the two countries to further the overall knowledge.
    • Swedish Diplomacy: Gustav Vasa, ambassador of Sweden to the Archbishop of Cologne, agrees to recognizing Stelzer's rights to the printing press. He reminds the Abbess of Essen that the nation of Sweden adopted the Adolphinian Reforms.
      • Abbess Sophia of Essen thanks Sweden and sends the relevant plans for the printing press, then apologises for any confusion about the Adelphinian Reforms - as it stands, there are curently two canonesses in Sweden helping with their implementation.
      • Brandenburgish Diplomacy: Prince Elector Heinrich responds to Cologne's request with agreement and states that he is simply making the academic circles of his domains open to new ideas to foster a greater feeling of good will amongst the population. Heinrich also requests the plans for the printing press promising to respect the original creator's rights to royalties once it is developed within the domains of the elector.
        • Earldom of Desmond Diplomacy- We ackowledge the fact that Stelzner is responsible for the original design, and allow a small percentage of royalties to Stelzner and his heirs and successors as per the anticipated Papal Bull. We are implementing the Adelphinian reforms in exhchange for the trade deal.
  • Kingdom of Tondo: With the successful liberation war, and Tondo turns to the Ming as a tributary. With the recent passing of the beloved monarch, Rajah Gambang, the nation mourns. Diyang Kalangitan assumes the throne, and takes no man to be her husband. Instead, she declares that on the eve of her death, the nobility of Tondo, Ma-I, and Pangasinan shall have an electorate regarding the successor of the united realms of Tondo. Kalangitan further consolidates her poweriscreetely assigning political opponents to far-flung provinces of Tondo or to Tondo's vassals of Ma-I and Pangasinan, or to colonization attempts in Palawan, Busuang and Samar. The government of Tondo can be roughly described as a Federal Monarchy, with each province ruled by a council with members proportionate to the province's population. Diyang Kalangitan invites the Huang of Pangasinan, his daughter and Ma-I's regency council, and officials from every province to draft something akin to an OTL constitution, namely, the Saligang Batas ng Tondo at Nasasakupan Nito (Constitution of the sovereign Kingdom of Tondo and all its holdings and possessions). As Maynila is one of the richest cities in South East Asia, it is now high-time to create a lasting legacy for it. A series of bridges and canals connecting the Pasig and Tagik (OTL Taguig) Rivers and all their tributaries to provide acquatic transportation, ease movement of goods, and simply build bridges above the waterways to ease the transportation of people in the Greater Tondo Province (OTL Metro Manila). To prevent problems of income inequality and unequal development, selected families in the capital are given incentives of food and gold to relocate to developing towns and cities in Cavite, Romblon and Samar. A road network has already connected Tondo Province to Cavite, and a series of roads from southeastern and southern Luzon to Pangasinan has already began construction. Tondo metallurgical capabilities increase as blast furnaces and ironforges are built all around the state. The port of Maynila is further expanded, with the navy increasing by 25 small ships and seven war junks. Trade with nearby states continue. Tondo continues expansion in Samae, Palawan and Busuanga. 2000 additional soldiers are trained Diyang Kalangitan refuses to seat beside representatives from the local Japanese merchants during the drafting on the constitution, and representatives from Ma-I and Pangasinan also refuse to sit beside or near Japanese nationals. Gambang orders 300 ships to move to patrol the Visayas archipelago, mainly  to protect the trade routes, and secretly to intimidate Cebu. Expansion into Palawan, Negros and Samar continues.
    • Huangdom of Ma-I: With Tondo's grace, Ma-I settles the western part of Busuanga Island, and dedicates 100 citizens there. Li Han thrives as a cultural and financial capital of Ma-I, while Beigang immediately becomes the second port of Tondo, and conducts trade regularly with nearby nations.
    • Huangdom of Pangasinan: With Tondo's grace, Pangasinan expands into Central and Northern Luzon, attempting to assimilate the mountain and Igorot tribes located nearby to access the massive agricultural treasure in the Banaue Rice Terraces and the farmlands of Central Luzon. The administrative capital city, Pangasinan, begins construction of a road connecting it to Maynila. Blast furnace construction continues, and a small defense fleet of 15 ships is allotted by Tondo to Pangasinan. Pangasinense traders report sightings of small islands west of Luzon, and scouts are sent by Pangasinan to verify their claims. Pangasinan claims these islands west of Mainland Luzon, now named as the Gambang Islands in honor of Rajah Gambang  (OTL Scarborough Shoal)
  • Mogadishu: The nation's income continues to grow, both from increased tariffs and from the Royal Trade Fleet. Our manufacturers expand and make more money. We further expand toward the Jubba River, as canals, dikes and ditches are being built. The land surrounding the Jubba-Shebelle Rivers becomes more fertile. 10,000 local tribesman and foreign settlers became citizens of our nation last year due to our policies of land reclamation and immigration attraction. We built cannons in our Chinese furnaces, which we received from China from Zheng He's trip. We continue to train our army. We declare war on Kilwa.
  • **Rwandan Diplomacy: We request to begin diplomatic relations with Mogadishu.
  • No blast furnaces magically imported from just Zheng He.
  • The Crown of Castile works rapidly to solve the economic crisis, but alas the crisis only continues to spiral out of control. As a result, many of the infrastructure projects are forced to take a back seat to maintaining Castile's Navy. The addition of a fourth of Genoa's navy helps in this regard, but without the proper funds the naval development grinds to a near halt for the time being. The remaining population of Granada continues to be deported, with a remaining 210,000 Granadan Muslims set for deportation over the next five years. Henry IV forms his new religious council, called the Order of the Red Lion. The Order is established to ensure that the "Religious Integrity" of Castile remains in check. In reality, however, the Order of the Red Lion seeks to destroy political discontent under the King's rule, and its establishment further solidifies King Henry's Absolute Power. Castile inherits many of Genoa's merchants and trade routes, but with the banking crisis having ruined the economies of many nations, trade is at an all time low.
    • Kingdom of Gibraltar: Continues its Christianization efforts. With a remaining 80,000 Berber Muslims in the territory, the kingdom should be able to finish the deportation efforts within seven more years. Castilian/Christian populace now numbers 60,000 within Gibraltar. With the economic crisis, little work is done on expanding the irrigation systems to reclaim the desert of Morocco. The Kingdom is ruled by Alfonso I of the House of Ivera.
    • Kingdom of Morocco: The Kingdom has a remaining Berber Muslim population of 830,000. With the slower settlement and deportation efforts, it is estimated to take another 30-50 years before. Morocco continues to be the meeting ground of Trade between Europe and the faraway Kuzir Empire, which makes the merchants of Fez quite rich. These merchants are somewhat spared from the economic crisis in Europe as they trade primarily with the Kuzirs, but many of them still feel the pressure with the economic collapse of Europe. The Kingdom is Ruled by Beatriz I, from a side branch of the House of Burgundy. Reclaim efforts are mostly funded by the wealthy merchants in Fez.
    • The Serene Republic of Liguria: With the end of the Neopolitian War, the republic of Liguria is established and ruled by the Spinola Family, ruled by Franseco Spinola. With the Rape of Genoa, a little under half of the population has fled the nation, resulting in a current population of 190,000. With many shipyards and docks damaged during the war, Franseco uses what little funds he has available to slowly restore the nation to its former glory, under Castillian dominance of course.
    • The Duchy of Athens: Annexes all of the Greek territory that Castile inherited from the Neopolitian War, and Castile/Athens asks that Naxos end its invasion as the war is over. The nation has a population of 60,000 and although there is some discontent, any hope of rebellion is quashed by the lack of a good sponsor, the banking crisis and the destruction of the Republic of Genoa. Duke Antonio Acciaioli is allowed to remain in power and a marrige is set up between his son Antonio and the daughter of Castile, Isabella
  • Duke of York: Richard Platagenet, 3rd Duke of York and descendant of King Edward III lays claim to the English throne issuing the Proclamation of Succession which argues Richard de Monfort has no claim to the English throne and he has the best claim through Edward III as opposed to some Breton pretender. He tells all English lords to rise up ((Skyboi you're my only hope)) against the Breton pretender who is secretly in league with France and plans to make England, France's vassal as Brittany already is. Evidence is that the Scottish war was horribly persecuted almost as if he wanted to lose and the King's favourites such as William Scarlett are unworthy courtiers. The King promises an English King for England with no ties to Brittany. Richard III promises to reward richly in lands and offices to those who fight on his side while those who fight for the Breton pretender are no more than French vassals. Determined to strike while anger is high and his cause if righteous he marches to London to confront Richard de Monfort in battle. Using the Scottish troops who came over at the promise of indepdence supported by his own troops and those of the other lords in the North to take London. He asks all foreign powers to stay clear of the conflict as this is an internal English matter. King Richard III makes it clear to all that he wants is to remove the pretender to the throne and keep peace in England does not seek a war with any foreign power believing war to be unjust in almost all circumstances. The Kings second son Edmun is born this year while Anne is now four and Edward, one, showing he has a growing family.
  • Numerous English lords rise up against Richard in order to support Richard against Richard in the war of Richards where only one Richard may win the battle between the two Richards.
  • Chimu Empire: The Empire continues working on a symbol and picture method of writing down the Chimu language. Research into new weapons egins to divulge into making stronger catapults using metal pins and pieces to hold it together better, as well as the idea of launching shards of sharpened metal instead of rocks in catapults in order to inflict larger and more deadly injuries to enemy forces. The Chimu golden age continues with the explosion of the birth rate throughout the Empire. Expansion to the south continues at a steady rate, with canals and irrigation systems and roads being built as the border goes farther southward. The Emperor continues buying new ships with the new hulls, forging the exppanding his Royal Fleet to 17 ships. The Chimu Empire continues researching more ways to perfect the hulls of wooden fortified reed ships. Metal tipped long arrows begin to produced, replacing stone tipped arrows all together, the arrows are in two units, ones with the long arrow can shoot through multiple enemy forces at once, while smaller arrows are better for smaller and weaker troops as well as better for long range when shooting specific or group targets. Culn units begin being divided into groups of which weapons they use, the four groups are infantry, which use sheilds and swords on front lines to protect the other units, the second group is spear throwers, which is placed behind the infantry, the bow and arrow units are subdivided, being placed in alternating units side by side behind the spear throwers, while catapults using both stone and metal shards on in the back of the force, pulled by mostly lammas. As families begin to have children at earlier rates, the Culn Units grow in leaps and bounds, growing from what was once 20 or 30 men to as high as 70 or even 80, allowing the formation of the first real armies. The Emperor appoints his eldest son to inspect the realms of the Empire, and he visits far and wide before returning to Chan Chan, but not before ordering the construction of a new palace near Cuzco for him and his wife.
  • Benin: Benin continues to expand into the lands of West Africa by 10,000 kilometers, rounding up any natives and enslaving them, before sending them off to buyers in North Africa and beyond. Another 60,000 male slaves are shipped to the Ottoman Empire as per their agreement, and 10,000 are shipped off to the Gurkani Empire. Growth of the intellectual societies within Benin continues as the educated elite of the empire begin to mature in terms of knowledge and wealth. The continued patronage of hundreds of abinibi (or "talented") societies by the Oba and the state for the sake of expanding the empire's scientific, artistic, literary, and philosophical views is made a priority by Oba Isikhuan. With the clergy itself helping to sponsor many of these groups and the religious bent to them given the intellectually-oriented faith of Kuzirism, more than 50 societies with more than 2000 members have been created within the last ten years. New centers of higher learning are established in major cities across Benin as the Oba seeks to become a patron of the arts, using the greatly expanded coffers of the state to do so. His infrastructure scheme for the western half of the empire ties these educational facilities into the empire nicely, and as the major arteries of the empire are developed, the growth of the intellectual elite of Benin expands as well. As the scientific community in Benin matures and its knowledge greatly expanded upon the hundreds of thousands of scientific and philosophical texts from Timbuktu and Gao over the last half century, many in Benin begin to consider this time as the Beninese Renaissance, as new ideas and concepts are considered and tested by the intellectuals of Benin. In the rest of Africa, the Kuzir missionaries get to work on their holy assignments, with thousands of missionaries across the continent preaching the work of Oghodua. Many minister to the Kongolese people, and others are preaching to the people of Sofala and the Swahili city-states. Several hundred have even penetrated as far as Rwanda, where they begin preaching to the masses, and even seek an audience with the King of Rwanda to convert him to Kuzirism. The trade in East Africa by the Bini merchants continues to expand, and some seek to go further afield, and look for the source of many riches, such as India and the Malacca Straits, where they here from local traders many riches await to be gained. However, some return home to seek the backing of the Oba for such a mercantile adventure so far from home. The port cities of Benin are greatly expanded as trade with the rest of the world increases. The city of Ziguinchor alone as grown from a tiny town of a few thousand people to a major center of trade with nearly 40,000 residents. As trade with Europe increases in wealth and volume, the city itself is expected to become one of the largest in Benin. The trade delegation from Ethiopia is accepted to Benin (from the last turn, didn't see the message), and negotiations on trade with the eastern empire begins.
  • Rwanda: The King, after a day long meeting with Kuzirist missionaries, announces he will be converting to Kurzirism. A massive conversion ceremony is announced, with 10,000 warriors watching as the King finishes his conversion. He announces Kuzirism is the official religion of Rwanda, and send missionaries to tribal areas surrounded the Kingdom to convert the tribes. The Kingdom will begin a series of military campaigns to expand southward, and spread the new religion across the land. The Kinini Ubwaguke (Great Expansion) begins. Over the past three years, we have expanded a total of 10,000 Kilometers. Once the Southward expansion is complete, we will expand eastward. For each expansion, we build roads to connect all of the villages. We also assimilate all of the different cultures into our Kingdom.
  • Abbasid Caliphate: We send 50,000 troops on 40 ships to attack to help the Ottomans wherever they attack. Al Najm leads the army. Nathan is currently busy so I am posting for him this turn at his request. -Rimp
  • Bahmanids: 30 ships and 10,000 men are sent to help the Mogadishans. More military expansion is ordered-the cavalry and commanders are equipped with swift Persian horses to make the army more manuverable, and a ten-year program is announced to equip 5000 men w/guns and even a few cannon. The economic warfare against Gujarat continues, as unrelenting as ever.
  • Ottoman Sultanate: The sultan works to build schools across the Ottoman Empire and works on hiring people across the state. More Muslims are sent to the south and some Turks are sent to mix with the other Muslims in the areas. The army then is brought back to surround the city while the army tries to gain more troops to replace. With the loss of the city Murad goes into Ankara and works on his army and navy weaponry. The sultan then begins to work on trading with the Thrimids and the Caliphate. Murad begins to send traders past Thrimid's land to Afghanistan and some going into India. The sultan begins to work on making Ankara a new city as Murda said "Better then the other" as he works on making the city a trading center - while the army is trained. The sultan begins to work his military training. Slaves are sent to mosques and schools to learn Arabic and Ottoman Turkish and Qu'ran and told they should teach 50 people how to read and speak Ottoman Turkish and Arabic. We ask the Gurkani Sultanate for peace and to work on making a peace treaty. We have white peace with Thrimud. The sultan rises the max amount of men and warships and send them to move and Invade Eprius with the support of the Caliphate.
    • ​The Caliphate suggests you attack Serbia instead.
    • After hearing the Caliph ideas we sent 40,000 to Epirus and the Caliphate army of 50,000 to march on Serbia with the backing of 300 ships -Ottoman
  • Ahom Kingdom: The 15 elephants are placed into the Ganesha Division, and ten more are trained. Training will be completed in two years. The single arquebusier khel is trained further to develop perfect accuracy, and roads, schools, and libraries are improved. An Ahom scientist also creates barbed arrows to cause more damage to wounds. Ahom infantry is trained to form an impenetrable wall of shields and spears while the elephants and cavalry are the main striking force, smashing the enemy flanks. The archers and arquebusiers are trained to provide defensive fire to the infantry line and make attacks on the center line near impossible due to heavy fire. Due to the Ahom Army's large complement of archers (30%), some archers will be assigned to the flanks to shoot into the advancing enemy flanks and further support the elepant charge. Once the enemy is routed, the infantry will charge the fleeing enemy forces while the light cavalry is used to pursue and harass the enemy.
  • Congo: We improve relations with Rwanda and we begin to convert our nation to Benin's main religion. We also expand a bit south and make our roads better we also expand 5000 kilometers south making it Congo.
  • Mayapan: Aztec expansion is heavily but discreetly monitored and preliminary defenses are prepared in case of war. Emperor Atlahua continues rallying the citizens of the nation for, what he believes, is an imminent war against the Aztecs. He stirs up nationalist sentiment with the citizens, increasing unity between the city-states. Integration of the southern city-states into the League is continued by the High Council. Each new state is expected to supply men to train and serve in the national army. The council seeks to improve commerce and communication between the many settlements of the Yucatan by constructing and maintaining roads between them. Work continues to renovate and update existing buildings, roads and to create plans for future upkeep and renovations.
  • Brandenburg-Luxembourg: The young elector Heinrich III agrees to wed the young Michelle of Burgundy to reaffirm the alliance between the two families. With this a massive wedding is hosted in the city of Luxembourg which the young couple take a liking to. In commemoration of the ceremony and of the beauty of the city of his family's ancestors, Heinrich decides to promote a massive revamp of the city and duchy's infrastructure and promises to promote greater economic growth of the city, marking a direct contrast to the previous focus on the east of his ancestors. With this in mind the city is subject to major subsedies to improve the duhy's growing smithing and metal works sector and to improve the artisans guilds now developing in the city along with in the rest of Heinrich's domains. Continuing the tradition of his father Heinrih enjoys greatly war games and focuses heavily on reforming and expanding the army at his disposal continuing his reforms with great enthusiasm. Training of gunmen and artillery continues as many of the former hussites are employed into the ranks of his new model army, in stark contrast to his father however this new force is geared toward defensive policies by reinforcing current strongholds throughout the domains and building new ones in key points along the borders and coastlines of the Elector's holdings. Efforts to improve the Brandenburgish navy continue as well. Much to Heinrich's displeasure he follows the advice of cloe advisors to scale down his planned ratio of gunmen one to eight infantrymen. To further consolidate his control over the lords he contniues to affirm their special privileges while bringing many of the children of the nobility into training as officers in his new army and into his advisory council to make them loyal to his rule. An effort to invite Italian and German philosophers and painters to the Brandenburgish and Luxembourgish courts begins by offering special grants. The population of Berlin which was previously standing at about 2000 at the beginning of the century is now at a surprising 15,600 due to the growing oppurtunities in the city, much of the population is made up of artisans and nobles leading to the growth of importance of the capital within the academic and economic circles of Heinrich's domains though Luxembourg and Stettin remain the largest and most important cities. Efforts to consolidate new trade networks continue with Luxembourg increasing trade with the lowlands and with Cologne and with much trade going north in the HRE going through Berlin to Stettin onto the Baltic Sea, and the port of Stettin growing in wealth and importance for the domains. Heinrich continues to trytod improve the diplomatic standing of Brandenburg that were greatly damaged during the war of the lions carried out by his predessesor and the regency that governed during his father's infancy. As a part of this effort Heinrich begins restructuring much of his father's foreign policies from one of obtaining new lands to one of maintaining and protecting the domains currently under his rule. 
    • ​Danish Diplomacy: The diplomatic standing of Denmark was also lost in the War of the Lions and we wish to repair the relations we lost with Brandenburg by offering a trade agreement.
  • Ethiopia: The farming settlers of the two Nile tributaries are starting off slow but well. Zera attempts to find ways to make salt mining easier. The Royal Guard is sent to the three capitals to train the town guard in better tactics. Zera requires all children ages 7-14 to go to church in the early morning ever other day. The Church of Our Lady Mary is being expanded for the second time to allow class roomish facilities.
  • In Austria, due to the unfortunate lack of response from the Bavarias, Archduke Albert V & II takes this as a rejection of his offer. As such, twenty two thousand soldiers cross the border between Austria and Bavaria, the majority heading into Landshut territory, toward the city of Branau in order to create a forward base of operations. Twenty thousand men (soldiers, mercenaries and guardsmen) begin the assault on the city, including the Arquebusiers and Giant Bombards of the Archducal Tormenta. Two thousand other men are set to harass cities for supplies and conduct variuous raids to try to thin the lines of the Bavarian army. As both armies gear up to assault the city of Brannau, the Bavarian armies intercept Austria, and a battle will take place for control of the city. In the end, the Bavarian Army is completely annihilated as Austria takes the city. The two Dukes of Bavaria-Strauberg and Bavaria-Landshut are gravely injured as a result. They are taken prisoner and agree to The Treaty of Brannau The treaty is signed, officialy uniting those two Bavarias into Austrian Bavaria, declaring Albert the head of the House of Wittelsbacht (his mother was a Wittelsbach). After they sign the treaty, they die of their wounds, despite the efforts of the Bavarian doctors into whose care they were entrusted. After such a victory, the Austrian Army solidifies control over the newly annexed Bavarian States, ensuring the loyalty of the local lords, taking oaths of fealty to Albert V & II. At the end of the year, Albert stays in the ancestral capital of Bavaria, Landshut, as he sends messengers to the Duke of Bavaria-Ingolstadt, asking for his fealty MOD RESPONSE NEEDED. Meanwhile, back in Austria, The Local ministers and court members manage the country very well, with the Lord Castellan taking advantage of the sudden hole in Banking left by Genoa's Demise to Expand the Austrian Archducal Bank of Commerce. David Goldstein, the Lord Castellan, being a Jew himself and unrestricted by the Christian laws on usury, expands the moneylending aspect of the Bank. The position of Lord Castellan becoming the de facto equivalent to "Court Jew " in other European monarchies.
  • Croatia: With the turmoil in the Balkans, the Croatian King and Sabor decide to request from the pope to authorize a crusade in 1444 against the heathen bogumilists of Bosnia.
    • Republic of Ragusa: Trade expands.
    • The pope approves. -MP
  • Order of Knights Hospitaller: Grand Master Jean declares the Order's support for the war against the Ottomans, and a squadron of the naval fleet is sent to assist.
  • Bohemia: Wenceslaus V raises 10,000 Holy Roman Mercenaries, sending them to Serbia to defend with the main forces there. We continue to influence electors. During the midst of the fighting in the Balkans, we invite the Archbishop of Cologne to come to Prague to uplift our people in a joint sermon with the Archbishop of Prague. Wenceslaus' children continue schooling. Our men begin to dig in in Serbia, in Belgrade, to defend the city against any other attacks that may come. We request that the pope calls a crusade against the heathen Muslims.
  • Queen Emma of Denmark: Everything around me is collapsing, the whole world is falling apart, the entirety of my being is filled with indescribable fear, and my heart pounds fervently against my chest as reality slips away and I go upon the cold hard ground and weep, praying to God for mercy upon Denmark for the armies of Norway, Sweden, and Russia have descended upon Denmark, the wrath of barbarians are upon my people, and I am all alone, with Gustav off at Cologne and my son Eric held hostage in Stockholm, I have no  one to turn to but my lovely daughter Elsa who I hold close to my breast, she is my only solace in this cruel and dark world, and if it weren’t for her I would have taken my life. I plead to God for mercy upon Denmark and her people, that he will protect us from all the invaders, and our defeat in this war shall not be overwhelming. I receive the letter from King Olaf of Sweden, assuring me that he betrayed me against his will, and that he was forced to join on Norway’s side, or else the full wrath of Russia would be upon him and that he is taking care of Eric. I send a message back, stating that I forgive King Olaf of what I thought was treachary, and I also thank him deeply for taking care of my only son Eric. I receive news that we defended successfully in the Battle of Stornholm and Battle of Ronneby, and I thank God that we were victorious in those battles. We were, however, defeated in the Battle of Halmstad, due to the 38,000 strong Russian-Norwegian Army, and thus the city is captured and we were defeated in war. With this defeat, I sign the Second Treaty of Malmo. Though Denmark lost, I am thankful that peace had befallen upon us and we only lost the Hebrides and Blekinge, and I rejoice in a great fire of joy and happiness upon seeing Gustav and Eric at Malmo, and I embrace them as well as Elsa. Now, for the first time in her life, Elsa meets her father Gustav and her brother Eric, and now the family is finally reuinited and I look foward to the marriage next year..
  • Japan: Following the defeat of Japan in its attempt to prevent China's errant vassal Korea from leaving its realm and the ousting of the Japanese from Tondo, the Ashikaga Shogunate sees an upset in power. While the Daimyos in central Japan remain loyal to the Ashikaga, though the clans outside of Honshu and Hokkaido especially begin to waive in their faith. Early this year, Ashikaga Yoshimochi is murdered. His son Ashikaga Yoshikage becomes the Shogun of Japan. Yoshikage, who was a Shinobi before swearing off his life of espionage, comes back into contact with several of the other Shinobi with which he once worked. He gathers these Shinobi together in Koka Village in a covert operation, Yoshikage operating under the pseudonym Yoru no Kurōra (Nightcrawler). There, he decides to strengthen the Shinobi, sending his operatives to the far reaches of Japan, each operative a master of a different school of Ninjutsu. Yoshikage, a master of Togakure-ryū himself, begins to train students in Koka Village. He intends to use the Shinobi to keep the Daimyo in check. The Shinobi warriors easily infiltrate the administrations of the northern Daimyos, reporting to the Shogun that each Daimyo is loyal to the Ashikaga Shogunate. In the south, however, the Shinobi report that there is growing dissent in southern Honshu. As of the end of this year, there is a lack of information between Kyoto and the Shinobi on Kyushu and Shikoku islands, though this is to be expected. With the strengthening of the Shinobi, 1443 is generally assumed to be the beginning of the Kakusareta sensō era (Hidden War era). As of the end of this year, every Shinobi is operating normally, with zero discoveries. Yoshikage, while mostly intending to ensure the Daimyo of Japan remain as loyal as they have been in the past, hopes to find his father's murderer and slay him on his own terms. In the meantime, the Japanese Navy sees renovation this year, three Junks being built along with patrol ships and other small ships intended to patrol the waters around Japan. The new shogun intends to improve Japanese relations with other East Asian powers, namely Korea. A few diplomats are sent to Seoul in addition to a chest full of gold. The diplomats bring messages of goodwill to Korea. Furthermore, they wish to discuss the sale of Japan's colony in Manchuria to Korea. In the meantime, Japan brings a sizable tribute to Japan along with a few eunuchs and Geisha. As China and Japan have had an alliance in the past, Japan wishes to reaffirm their good relations with Ming. The colony on Taiwan is expanded to the south while the territories in Hokkaido expand to the north.
  • King Mikkael I of Norway: After the defeat of the Danish army in the War of the Goats, I celebrate our victory over the Danish Devils. I send thanks and a payment of 5000 ducats to both the Russians and Swedes to thank them for their help. I begin to incorporate the Hebrides into Norway, deporting the Danes settled there. I continue my building of a palace in the Geirangerfjord. In Bergen, the university continues as well being built to attract the best scientists, writers, astronomers, artists and theologians in competion with Copenhagen. I ask Cologne for a replica of the printing press to be sent to Norway to study and replicate for the greater good of man. Scientae Dei grows to have 13,000 books, making it a great library. I devise a plan for building roads across Norway. In order to better ensure communication between the colonies and Norway, I create a system of messenger ships, intended to travel at high speeds and transport messages for Norway. At the end of the year, Johanna is pregnant. A celebration for this is held in the capitol. Jonathan begins to be schooled in how to be a king.
    • Cologne Dip: Archbishop Dietrich II offers Norway the standing offer of 1443: if Norway will acknowledge (in writing) and respect the fact that Stelzner is responsible for the original design, and allow a small percentage of royalties to Stelzner and his heirs and successors as per the anticipated Papal Bull, it will be given the secrets of the design.
  • Portugal: Reaches Congo River. Kingdom of Kongo nobles are taken to Portugal and convert to Chrsitanity. Town walls especially around Lisbon contiue to expand. Genovese popualtion continues to expand. Working on the new ship continues to happen. Navy continues to expand. Afonso (Age 11) looks for a wife throughout Europe. (if you want to be married to the King just post a good dowry and I will pick the best.) (Busy Life will try to be larger next turn)
    • Essen Dip: Abbess Sophia offers secular canoness Judith of Berg as Afonso's future bride, noting that as a secular canoness she comes from a royal background and has not taken vows of chastity like a canoness regular (or nun). She is beautiful and intelligent, and Essen offers a trade deal with from its silver mines in addition.

1444

The Squatter of Novgorod, as he is colloquially known amongst the Holy Roman Empire seems to get into trouble quite often with smaller local nobles, primarily for shouting unintelligible eastern Slavic words, most memorable among those being the ubiquitous Cyka Blyat.

Moctezuma I of the Aztec Empire (great general) determines to destroy the Totonac Empire, seeing their land as a fertile addition to the nation. His ultimate goal is not to annex the nation, but enslave the populace to feed the monthly human sacrifices

The internal strife amongst the Kalmar Union causes a minor disruption of trade in the region.

The City of Hesse proclaims a Mud Festival where participants throw mud at each other for prizes (this is your first Mud Event)

Harold Adolfus, a great scholar in Oslo, paints the first Madonna in realistic perspective.

The Yorkish march on London is successful, and they occupy the city. The Duke of York is proclaimed Richard IV.


  • Duchy of Burgundy: Naval development continues. Hearing of portugals contact with Benin, it is decided to re-attempt a voyage south. This time, Burgundian ships land near Benin's Malian territory, and on behalf of Duke Philip, request the establishment of commerce with the Empire. Meanwhile a message is sen to Duke Gerhard VII of Jülich, suggesting that, since he's been unable to press his claim to Guelders, that he sell his claim to Burgundy (like what happened OTL) ((Save me, Skyboi, you're my only hope)).
  • Yee sure-Sky
  • Abbasid Caliphate: Returning from his campaign in Europe, Al-Najm conquers Naxos with 55,000 men and 70 ships
  • The Gurkani Sultanate: Sultan Ulugh Beg Mirza continued his rule over the Sultanate. The Gurkani population rose to about 24 million with the people flocking to cities like Herat, Isfahan, Gamrun, Qazvin, Bukhara, Tabriz and Iskenderun; primarily due to their strategic position in the spice trade. In regards to religion, the Sultanate promoted Sunni Islam over all other Islamic sects, and advocated conversion to Islam from other Islamic sects. The military was primarily composed of medium-to-heavy cavalry, composite bow, lance, mace, and sword. Heavy cavalrymen wore plated chain mail or metal lamellar armor, with their horses also wearing leather or metal lamellar barding. The infantry was equipped with daggers and swords to be utilised in close combat against the enemy and elephants as well as carts were used for the transportation of supplies. Cannons were constructed to serve as siege weaponry whilst experimental muskets were beginning to be developed. Naval bases were established at Iskenderun, Trabzon and Gamrun to establish the presence of the Gurkani fleet in the Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea and the Persian Gulf respectively, keen on controlling any piracy. The Gurkani Navy developed galleys and carracks to augment the smaller patrol fleets. Agriculture and commerce were at the Sultanate's forepoint, with wheat, rice and barley being amongst the largest produced crops. To prevent the Sultanate from ever getting hit by a major famine, the individual Amirs also engaged in the storage of food supplies, which would be utilized in case of famine or otherwise exported. Fishery was promoted as well as it helped in sustaining the fishery villages that were present along the coast, as well as the major port cities of Iskenderun, Basra, Gamrun and Trabzon. The Sultanate mined large amounts of silver and gold, to serve as currency as well as ornaments and jewellery. Importance was also given on the development of proper roads for the merchants utilizing the trade routes through the Sultanate, with all caravans being armed and protected with a small detachment of guards. Meanwhile, the construction of educational madrassahs continued throughout the Empire, with the sultan keen on spreading education and knowledge amongst the populace of the Sultanate. The sultan sought to replicate the Islamic Golden Age that existed during the period of the Abbasids prior to the Mongol Invasion, and accordingly funded the teaching of Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, with Algebra, Geometry, Astronomy, Anatomy and Medicine being of prime importance. The lingua franca promoted throughout the Sultanate was also Persian, primarily due to the fact that Persian had existed as the language spoken by communities in the region for centuries and as such served as an excellent language for communication. The Sultanate continued to expand its territories into the Caucasus and the Persian Gulf islands. Mahmud Mirza returns from Kalat, having successfully defeated the Baloch army. With the successful victory, the sultan annexes Balochistan back into the Empire. 
    • Jalayirid Sultanate: Sultana Saima Daula continued her reign over the Sultanate. Acting as a vassal to the Gurkani Sultanate, she would only be answerable to the Gurkani Amir. The military and the navy were developed along the same lines as their Gurkani counterparts, with a major naval base constructed at Iskenderun where the Jalayirid fleet was also situated. Jalayirid authorities continue to work on the construction of a fleet at İskenderun, working side by side with Castilian authorities. The Jalayirid Sultana, Rukhsana Daula would continue to develop the trade route leading from his Mediterranean port of İskenderun to his Persian Gulf port of Basra, hoping to make it much more advanced and efficient.
    • Khedivate of Trabzon: Amir Alexios IV Komnenos continued his reign over the Sultanate. Acting as a vassal to the Gurkani Sultanate, he would only be answerable to the Gurkani Amir. The military and the navy were developed along the same lines as their Gurkani counterparts, with a major naval base constructed at the city of Trabzon, where the Trabzon fleet was also situated. Trabzoni authorities continue to work on the construction of a fleet at Trabzon, working side by side with Castilian authorities. The Trabzon Amir, Alexios IV Komnenos would continue to develop the trade route leading from his Black Sea port of Trabzon, connecting it to the city of Tabriz, hoping to make the spice trade routes much more advanced and efficient.
  • Aragon continues to recover from the economic crisis that followed the fall of the Bank of St George in 1439 and the near-collapse of the Royal Bank of Barcelona, which so far has seen success in recovering lost funds. Our population currently stands at 1.47 million, and we hope to reach 2 million by the end of the century. To cope with the growing population, new farms are established across the nation, and new irrigation programs are initiated by the government to supply these farms. The reconstruction of Barcelona inches ever closer to completion, and more districts are opened. The Governor of Barcelona claims during an inspection that the capital is the cleanest city in western Europe. Meanwhile, the University of Barcelona now has a student body of 100, and the King bestows the "Royal" prefix to the University, renaming it the Royal University of Barcelona (Universidad Real de Barcelona; Latin: Universitas Regalis Barcelonis) as it has now become the elite educational institute in the country. The University also houses the new Royal Library (Biblioteca Real), whose books and documents were moved to Barcelona from Zarazoga this year. In Desmond, we help the government to establish and develop the Bank of Desmond.
  • Duchy of Thuringen: The city guard continues to defend the capital city of Erfurt. Our military grows by adding more recruits each year. We continue to trade again with our neighboring states. Farming goes well in our nation this year. The healthy population continues to increase by 3% each year. Karsten's improvement in the training area is continuing to show off. Our economy continues to tryto rebuild itself from the collapse of 1439. We continue to invest in Ekehard's printing press, thinking it will help boost our economy of our nation back to what it used to be in 1438 before the collapse. With Bohemia still distracted with the Ottomans we continue to mobilize our troops more farther into Hesse. Now that the war is over our troops take over 75% of Hesse's former lands with our army. The people that used to live under Hesse rule now live under our rule. The population of the nations grows from 800,000 to 1.1 million people with the add land we won.
  • Iroquois Confederacy: The construction of the trade town Tiohero (3 turns) continues. Stone and timber walls are finished, rising 25 ft and wide enough for two braves to be able to walk comfortably beside each other. The construction of Hanowa also continues (2 turns), with clearing of a massive circle for ceremonies to take place as well as structures that will house pupils of the school. Small veins of copper are found in OTL Vermont and New Hampshire, the work is hard but we extract enough copper to be sent to Hanowa for religious purposes. The education of diplomats continues and will be finished next turn, their purpose to explore the surrounding tribes and trade language and culture. We send 1000 braves to site where the Iroquois/Wichita center of knowledge will be built, they are to work and defend the surrounding land. We call this place Skawennahawi, or "She Carries the Message", for this city will become the frame work for the future of all indigenous people. Along with the braves are an array of building materials and working dogs. To the Cherokee, we again offer an alliance between our noble people and wish to bring them into an alliance with Wichita, with the goal still being total unification of all tribes and nations. We continue expanding our own towns and settlements. In Nowadaga, longhouses devoted to Thunderer, thunder diety, and the Three Sisters, dieties for squash/corn/beans, are built, along with a section cleared for a large, communal garden that all shamans can pull from. Chief Notaku asks his most skilled craftsmen to make a great copper eagle to sit atop The Great Tree of Peace. All of this is done to centralize the religion and reinforce the bonds made throughout the Confederacy.
  • Cherokee Collective: Under the enlightened leadership of Walela, a new capital city is built to house the Grand Chief's seat and the Council of Elders, and a longhouse dedicated to the agricultural deities. New roads are built to connect settlements to each other. We accept the proposed alliance of the Iroqouis, in the hope of learning new ways for agriculture, warfare, and a possible trading partner. The Council proposes a representative council with each elder representing a settlement, elected by the inhabitants of the each settlement. Meanwhile, following a month-long episode of delirium while hunting in the forest, a young man named Amah begins preaching a monotheistic faith centered around a deity only known as "The Mother". His following begin to sway into a steady rise, and this faith becomes known as the Dancing Sun, a fanatical religious cult built on Amah's preachings.
  • Cologne: The Archbishop of Cologne sends a combination of canons and canonesses to reside permanently in Desmond and Brandenburg, along with the designs to the printing press. In these countries, any moderate Hussite dissidents begin to be appeased by the Court of Discipline and other measures as outlined in the Concord of Luxembourg. The standing offer of 1443 remains open to any other country that wishes to gain access to the secrets of the printing press. Meanwhile, Archbishop Dietrich II travels to Prague as per the request of Wenceslaus V and is back in Cologne by the end of that year.
    • Essen: Abbess Sophia continues to offer the Adelphinian Reforms and a corresponding reduced-tax trade deal to Austria and Italy (see 1443). Further, some philosophers from the University of Cologne, accompanied by some of the more learned canonesses residing in the newly-established University of Essen, travel to the Brandenburgish Court to take part in the conference and further the diplomatic ties between Brandenburg and Cologne/Essen
    • Norwegian Diplomacy: We agree in the terms for the printing press offered in the past turn.
    • Desmond Diplomacy: We agree in the terms for the printing press offered in the past turn.
  • Kingdom of Tondo:  With the recent passing of the beloved monarch, Rajah Gambang, the nation mourns. Diyang Kalangitan assumes the throne, and takes no man to be her husband. Instead, she declares that on the eve of her death, the nobility of Tondo, Ma-I, and Pangasinan shall have an electorate regarding the successor of the united realms of Tondo. Kalangitan further consolidates her poweriscreetely assigning political opponents to far-flung provinces of Tondo or to Tondo's vassals of Ma-I and Pangasinan, or to colonization attempts in Palawan, Busuang and Samar. The government of Tondo can be roughly described as a Federal Monarchy, with each province ruled by a council with members proportionate to the province's population. Diyang Kalangitan invites the Huang of Pangasinan, his daughter and Ma-I's regency council, and officials from every province to draft something akin to an OTL constitution, namely, the Saligang Batas ng Tondo at Nasasakupan Nito (Constitution of the sovereign Kingdom of Tondo and all its holdings and possessions). As Maynila is one of the richest cities in South East Asia, it is now high-time to create a lasting legacy for it. A series of bridges and canals connecting the Pasig and Tagik (OTL Taguig) Rivers and all their tributaries to provide acquatic transportation, ease movement of goods, and simply build bridges above the waterways to ease the transportation of people in the Greater Tondo Province (OTL Metro Manila). To prevent problems of income inequality and unequal development, selected families in the capital are given incentives of food and gold to relocate to developing towns and cities in Cavite, Romblon and Samar. A road network has already connected Tondo Province to Cavite, and a series of roads from southeastern and southern Luzon to Pangasinan has already began construction. Tondo metallurgical capabilities increase as blast furnaces and ironforges are built all around the state. The port of Maynila is further expanded, with the navy increasing by 25 small ships and seven war junks. Trade with nearby states continue. Tondo continues expansion in Samae, Palawan and Busuanga. 2000 additional soldiers are trained. Kalangitan orders 400 ships to move to patrol the Visayas archipelago, mainly  to protect the trade routes, and secretly to intimidate Cebu. Expansion into Palawan, Negros and Samar continues.
    • Huangdom of Ma-I: With Tondo's grace, Ma-I settles the western part of Busuanga Island, and dedicates 100 citizens there. Li Han thrives as a cultural and financial capital of Ma-I, while Beigang immediately becomes the second port of Tondo, and conducts trade regularly with nearby nations.
    • Huangdom of Pangasinan: With Tondo's grace, Pangasinan expands into Central and Northern Luzon, attempting to assimilate the mountain and Igorot tribes located nearby to access the massive agricultural treasure in the Banaue Rice Terraces and the farmlands of Central Luzon. The administrative capital city, Pangasinan, begins construction of a road connecting it to Maynila. Blast furnace construction continues, and a small defense fleet of 15 ships is allotted by Tondo to Pangasinan. Pangasinense traders report sightings of small islands west of Luzon, and scouts are sent by Pangasinan to verify their claims. Pangasinan claims these islands west of Mainland Luzon, now named as the Gambang Islands in honor of Rajah Gambang  (OTL Scarborough Shoal)
  • Ahom Kingdom: Susenphaa orders the expansion of the battle tactics laid down last year. War games are conducted, and a massive military parade is conducted to raise morale. Susephaa also orders the continual renovation of buildings in Chariadeo, Rangpur, and Jorhat. Roads between the three cities are improved, and a fourth city is planned. Named Garghaon, it will be part of the nation's Four Jewels program to create four grand cities in the kingdom. Much modernization and renovation will need to be conducted, and Garghaon is expected to urbanize in 1446.
  • Korean monarch Yi Do refuses to re-open ties with Japan, deporting Japanese diplomats back to Japan immediately. He sends diplomats to the Ming to convince the Emperor to not do so, reminding him of the Japanese attempt to conquest it decades earlier. Wary of increased Japanese patrols in the Korea strait, Korea sends ships to patrol it as well. War-junks, turtle-ships, and panokseon are built, and are stationed in the cities of Busan and Ulsan in anticipation of a Japanese attack or when the Ming finally executes the plan of a Korean–Chinese subjugation of Japan. To consolidate coastal presence, Korea expands northeast into the Manchurian coast, assimilating local Ainus and Nivhs. Bukgyeong continues growth as the administrative centre of Ryojeo. Meanwhile, Korea continues to experience affluence under a meritocratic bureaucracy. Mahayana Buddhism under the Yi sect, which incorporates Confucian values and Muist rites, becomes increasingly ingrained into Korean culture. Striving to mirror the sophistication of the Ming, the establishment of policies that hope to augment the Korean economy continues with vigor. Mercantile activities are promoted, with wealthy merchants patronizing the arts and literature. People flock to cities to work in industrial complexes, textiles, and handicrafts. Buildings are upscaled in beauty and sophistication to reflect Korea's growing affluence, while more people are partaking in education.
  • Mogadishu: The nation's income continues to grow, both from increased tariffs and from the Royal Trade Fleet. Our manufacturers expand and make more money. We further expand toward the Jubba River, as canals, dikes and ditches are being built. The land surrounding the Jubba-Shebelle Rivers becomes more fertile. 10,000 local tribesman and foreign settlers became citizens of our nation last year due to our policies of land reclamation and immigration attraction. We build cannons for our ships, just five each for our 20 largest ships. We continue to train our army. We declare war on Mombasa.
    • Mogadishu Dip: We begin relations with Rwanda.
  • Bahmanids: 30 ships and 10,000 men are sent to assist Mogadishu. Ali Nadeem Shah, noting the 'strange occurrences' making Gujarat unprofitable for Oman, asks to buy it from them, for five ships filled with gold and silver. In addition, the Omanis will be allowed a large trading post at Diu, favored trade privileges throughout the Bahmanid lands (just below that of the Mogadishans), and 10% of all crown revenue from Gujarat if they accept. Those Omani nobles in Bahmanid pay are asked to speak for the deal, as well as bribe any others they can to speak for it.(MOD RESPONSE NEEDED) Ali Nadeem Shah's health begins to fail, and he worries that his son, Ismail, may not be ready for the throne, especially as he does not seem very warlike.
    • Addendum: The exact price is negotiable.
    • Oman says no, stop it. -Scraw
  • King Olaf of Sweden: My children, Adele and Nils begin being more active and I hail my son as Jarl of Smaland. The weddings between Mikkael and Johanna and between Emma and Gustav take place, and I put in motion my plan as I present the Olafinian Reforms. Nils Oxenstierna, Minister of Knowledge and Duke of Gotland, is sent as an ambassador to the Archbishop of Cologne, following the marriage of Gustav and his hailing as King-consort of Denmark. The Bank of St. Birgitta, suffering from the collapse, closes the branches in Dundee, Edinburgh, Aberdeen, Cork and Uppsala. Prince Eric is treated like any son or sibling of mine. I fear for his health, for he has become delusional, and he sees ghosts and spirits. I ask Chancellor Bengt to look around the country to establish a council of advisors, called the Smådag (Small Council). The University of Uppsala opens this year, with great parade and fanfare. I begin a policy of expanding eastward in Finland, to reach the Russian border.
  • Totonac Empire: Emperor Tepictoton addresses thousands of Totonacs in his capital of Xallapan "We have been nothing but friends with the Aztecs, regurarly selling them slaves to satisfy their needs for blood for their hideous sacrifices, yet they betrayed us and now they wanna submit us and enslave our families and sacrifice them to their gods, yet we say WE SHALL NOT YIELD". Emperor Tepictoton then holes up with his 55,000 warriors that he leads in Xallapan hoping to stop the Aztec onslaught. A while before the siege begins to cheer up his warriors he makes a speech "Arise! Arise, Warriors of Tepictoton! Spears shall be shaken, shields shall be splintered! A sword day ... a red day ... e'er the sun rises! Hold now! ... Hold now! ... Hold! Hold to ruin and the world's ending! Death! Death! Death! Death! DEATH! Death! Hold, Totonacs and Tarascans! Here we make our Last Stand"! We rapidly expand to the west building forts and towns. Helps the Tarascan Empire construct solid walls in its main cities. Metal working continues to grow, with citizens being able to afford them, allowing more warriors to be modernly armed. Bronze short swords/fie machetes are purchased by more warriors, and research into new longer weapons and shields continues. Major roads are constructed and maintained throughout the Empire to promote trade and ease transport of goods and armies. Emperor Tepictoton announces lower taxation in Colipa, to help the city grow, as well as new areas open for the city's expansion, which are shielded by the new expanded walls of Colipa. The Western provinces are further integrated into the Empire. The temples in El Tajin are renovated and now serve for all kinds of religious activities. Also, an estimate is made by a renowned scholar for our the population of our five biggest population centers, estimating that our capital Xallapan has around 120,000 population, Cempoala has around 120,000 population, Papantla has around 60,000 population, Colipa has around 30,000 population and El Tajin has around 15,000 population. The rights of non-Totonacs continue to get revoked in favor of Totonacs, with the Mayan people being the only exemption. We call our ally Mayapan to assist us against the rampaging Aztec threat, that has targeted us now as their victims, to enslave us and exterminate us by sacrificing us to their gods. And we wonder how many victims will these ruthless criminals have, as civilization after civilization, they all fall to their advance.
  • Tarascan Empire: Emperor Tepictoton Emperor Tepictoton then holes up with his 26,500 warriors that he leads in Xallapan hoping to stop the Aztec onslaught. We rapidly expand to the west building forts and towns. Shares all its metallurgy secrets with Totonacapan. Constructs solid walls in its main cities with the help of the Totonac Empire.
  • The Crown of Castile begins to recover from the banking crisis, although the impacts of the crisis are still felt in the nation, trade begins to recover and the Castilian economy begins to grow once more. The Order of the Red Lion continues its efforts to purge political discontent and further consolidate the absolute rule of King Henry IV. Naval expansion continues, with Castile now having the largest Navy on the Mediterranean. Population stands at 4.8 million. Deportation efforts in Granada continue, with 150,000 Granadan Muslims remaining.
    • Kingdom of Gibraltar: Continues its Christianization efforts. With a remaining 80,000 Berber Muslims in the territory, the kingdom should be able to finish the deportation efforts within seven more years. Castilian/Christian populace now numbers 60,000 within Gibraltar. With the economic crisis, little work is done on expanding the irrigation systems to reclaim the desert of Morocco. The Kingdom is ruled by Alfonso I of the House of Ivera.
    • Kingdom of Morocco: The Kingdom has a remaining Berber Muslim population of 830,000. With the slower settlement and deportation efforts, it is estimated to take another 30-50 years before. Morocco continues to be the meeting ground of Trade between Europe and the faraway Kuzir Empire, which makes the merchants of Fez quite rich. These merchants are somewhat spared from the economic crisis in Europe as they trade primarily with the Kuzirs, but many of them still feel the pressure with the economic collapse of Europe. The Kingdom is Ruled by Beatriz I, from a side branch of the House of Burgundy. Reclaim efforts are mostly funded by the wealthy merchants in Fez.
    • The Serene Republic of Liguria: With the end of the Neopolitian War, the republic of Liguria is established and ruled by the Spinola Family, ruled by Franseco Spinola. With the Rape of Genoa, a little under half of the population has fled the nation, resulting in a current population of 190,000. With many shipyards and docks damaged during the war, Franseco uses what little funds he has available to slowly restore the nation to its former glory, under Castillian dominance of course.
    • The Duchy of Athens: Annexes all of the Greek territory that Castile inherited from the Neopolitian War, and Castile/Athens asks that Naxos end its invasion as the war is over. The nation has a population of 60,000 and although there is some discontent, any hope of rebellion is quashed by the lack of a good sponsor, the banking crisis and the destruction of the Republic of Genoa. Duke Antonio Acciaioli is allowed to remain in power and a marrige is set up between his son Antonio and the daughter of Castile, Isabella
  • Richard IV: Richard IV is crowned in Westminster Abbey as the Yorkist forces supported by other nobles seize London. With the war still continuing Richard IV holds of calling parliament until Richard III has been driven out of England. Not resting on his laurels Richard IV goes out to confront Richard III's army in battle wherever it is and once he reaches it he offers a one time amnesty to all lords who supported the Breton pretender ((Skyboi you're my only hope)) arguing the Breton pretender has been inactive and hasn't responded to the fighting or rallied lords to his call while Richard IV holds London and is a lot more likely to win. Meanwhile we offer to the Duke of the Brittany that he and William Scarlett, the peasant general, return to Brittany and renounce all claims upon the English throne and we will allow him to leave ((Skyboi you're my only hope)). If the Duke of Brittany does not take his offer or other lords continue to rebel the traitors are attacked. Elizabeth of York is born while his other children continue to grow back in their ancestral castle.
    • All lords, out of fear accept while the Duke and his gang agree, fearing for their lives. -Skyboi
    • Richard IV: With our victory in the English civil war, Scotland is given its independence with James II of Scotland as King. While the King calls Parliament to affirm his new rule and promises to start a reform over the year.
  • Earldom of Desmond: We invade Ormond and Leinster with 1500 troops. With the newly established Bank of Desmond, we embark on an ambitious quest of building up our duchy. First a large paved road network will connect all major towns and cities together, while smaller roads will be diverted to villages. There will be regular toll posts where a standard fee will be exacted based on number of people, age and cargo. The roads have already started in most of our territory, though now we are building on a larger scale using gangs of POW's and criminals (Road network finished in 1446). There are also plans into expanding and restructuring the town of Cork into a proper full-fledged city. We plan for there to be broad streets, gardens and parks, while we plan to buil sewers beneath the streets to ensure proper sanitation. The city will be divided into several sections, commons for people to live, Administration for the town hall and the government of the Earldom, Industrial for the fledging industrial sector, Merchant district/market area and the dockyards. This expansion and upgrade of the city is expected to be finished in (1446) while the docks are also meant to be upgraded with extra space for building ships and docking ships. We take several loans from the banks to cover the expenses though we mainly use loot from the tribal wars to cover expenses. Currently the population of Cork is up to 6000. We try to make Cork the trade capital of Ireland by building a large marker place in Cork, and offering tax cuts for merchants who set up in Cork. We continue to fortify our lands, as well as increase our economy and military power. Building up of infrastructure is also continued. The current population is judged to be around 200,000. We now decide that York will win this war and it'll be best to side with him. We offer Richard Duke of York our allegiance in exchange for the Pale. ~Posted for Red
    • Richard IV: We agree in exchange for the vassilation of the Earldom of Desmond and the providing of the Earl's current heir as a ward for the next ten years so he can study in England. The Pale will be included amongst the Earl's territories.
    • Desmond Dip: We agree with the terms but also ask England to help us conquer the rest of Ireland as our domain is ultimately their domain now.
  • Rwanda: We continue to preach Kuzirsm, and we continue to build on roads. We have expanded over the past four years 13,000 Square Kilometers South, but now will will expand East and West, with two armies of 1000 heading to conquer the tribes surrounding us. Kurzirsm will soon be introduced to the tribes we conquer, and we have begun to experiment with stone buildings. Currently, we are limtied to trying our first stone military fortifications, but if all goes well we may make a stone palace for the King. We send is Kuzirist Missionaries to the Kingdom of Buganda to Convert thier King. (half of the benin missionaries that our my king are being sent) **Mod response required
  • Ottoman Sultanate: The sultan works to build schools across the Ottoman Empire and works on hiring people across the state. More Muslims are sent to the south and some Turks are sent to mix with the other Muslims in the areas. The army then is brought back to surround the city while the army tries to gain more troops to replace. With the loss of the city Murad goes into Ankara and works on his army and navy weaponry. The sultan then begins to work on trading with the Thrimids and the Caliphate. Murad begins to send traders past Thrimid's land to Afghanistan and some going into India. The sultan begins to work on making Ankara a new city as Murda said "Better then the other" as he works on making the city a trading center - while the army is trained. The sultan begins to work his military training. Slaves are sent to mosques and schools to learn Arabic and Ottoman Turkish and Qu'ran and told they should teach 50 people how to read and speak Ottoman Turkish and Arabic. We ask the Gurkani Sultanate for peace and to work on making a peace treaty. We have white peace with Thrimud. The sultan along with his army are kept on the ready moving to meet up with Caliphate's army and begin to wait for the signing of the treaty.
    • Serbia:  A army is amass a work with the Caliphate.
      • Wallachia (Ottoman vassal): The sultan begins to create 800 more mosques - mostly in the South, and recruiting peasants for the army. More imams are sent to Serbia in hope of converting the population. The troops are ordered not to fire unless fired upon, the troops begin to work on defenses. The castle is now worked on by peasants. With the riots across the vassals the government is sent in to stop any riots but the government halts their construction of mosques (but already-built mosques will stay) but Wallachian Muslims are recommended to move down south and to spread across the green areas while they are recommended to then populate the area. The area is set up with defenses to stop the crusader army, as an army is amassed
      • Epirus (Ottoman vassal): The state begins to send aid to civilians after Sultan Mehmed is heard saying "Let the Christians, Jews and anyone get food ... so long as they stay with the state. the Ottoman army sends 10,000 Turks to mingle with the population and to thank the people. A army is amassed.
  • Croatia and Ragusa launch an attack on the Bosnian Kingdom in order to rid it of the bogomilists from which the Bosnians didn't cleanse it off. With support of the pope, they use their knowledge of the terrain (bosnia hasn't been independent for so long so they know the terrain as they held it until recently) to attack the Bosniak lands and strike them where they're weakest.
  • Order of Knights Hospitaller: The squadron of the navy sent last year continues to assist in the wars against the infidels. Grand Master Jean meets the Grand Prior of Candia and both discuss the possibility of raising a militia from amongst the local Rhodian and Candian populations. The Commander of the Order's Commandry near Cologne asks the Archbishop of Cologne for a printed Bible to send to the Grand Master.
    • Cologne Dip: Archbishop Dietrich II of Cologne is happy to send a printed Latin Bible to Grand Master Jean of the Knights Hospitaller, and makes it clear that Cologne and Essen are willing to send further religious texts, including the German Bible, the Book of Adelphinian Reforms, and a printed Lictionary, if the Grand Master so desires.
  • Taking the Duke Louis VIII of Bavaria-Ingostadt's lack of response as a rejection of Albert's Offer, Austrian Forces, replenished and rested from last year's fighting, march on Neuberg in an attempt to take the city, hoping to surround the Capital and force the Duke's hand. Twenty thousand men march into the territory, a much larger force than the meagre nation of Bavaria-Ingolstadt can muster, it being the smallest of the four bavarias. Justifying his invasion using his newfound status as self-proclaimed Head of the von Wittelsbach noble family. As Albert prepares for Battle, his son, Ferdinand, Is buisy building more mines in his territories of Further Austria, or as it is known now, the county of Habsburg. In his father's absence, Ferdinand receives a missive announcing that he is to act as Herrkanzler in Austria after the death of the previous holder of the title. So he does, receiving petitions to the crown as so forth after he reaches the Capital of Vienna, leaving his elder sister, Elsbeth, to tend to things in Further Austria. Ferdinand begins to actively seek a wife for himself, and husbands for his sisters, if any European nation is willing to wed into the House of von Habsburg-Wittelsbach.Ferdinand himself is more interested in seeking any heiresses to landed titles or female heads of houses themselves. Mods are free to act on behalf of NPC nations who have female heirs/monarchs. Archduke Albert, having crushed Duke Louis' forces and Taken the city of Neuberg, the Austrian pressure forces the Duke, who barely survived the battle, to sue for peace, giving as close to unconditional surrender as is possible in medieval Germany. The Two monarchs sign the Treaty of Ingolstadt, adding one more recognition of Albert and his successors' status as Heads of the House of Wittelsbach, which is now merged to the House of Habsburg, in addition to incorporating Bavaria-Ingolstadt into Austrian Bavaria, putting an end to the two years of warfare that will go down into the annals of history as the Wars of Bavarian Unification.
  • Ethiopian: Zera plans on expanding the economy by finding a more efficent way of mining the resources of his empire. He sends settles to the divergence of the nile into the blue and white, and founds a settlement named Mogran to help secure river trade. A trade outpost is set up toward lake Tana but before the waterfall.
  • Benin: The Oba of Benin authorizes the sending of additional missionaries to the lands of Kongo and Rwanda, as well as increasing missionary efforts throughout the whole of Africa. He wishes to expand the faith of Kuzirism to all of his neighbors, and share the good news of Oghodua with the wayward tribes of his region. Development of the national infrastructure continues under his lead, and the development of sanitary facilities in the cities a primary component of the empire's plans. Expansion into Akan and now Baule lands continues, with an additional 10,000 square kilometers settled by the Bini people. The indoctrination of the conquered peoples continues in Jolof, where the port city of Dakar (fixed my map, the port is actually Dakar) is expanded to accommodate additional ships and trading facilities. Benin sends some troops to Kongo to train the warriors of that land in proper warfare, as well as missionaries to help educate the people in the way of Oghodua and enlighten them as to how to manage their farmlands and affairs of state. The growth of the abinibi societies in Benin continues, with patronage from the Oba himself to promote intellectual stimulation of the empire's educated elite, as well as to help further the cultural developments of the empire for what many within the halls of power in Benin have called "Benin's Renaissance". The period of artistry and growth of trade and liberal studies is the culmination of decades of hard work and effort, effort that its chief proponent, Oba Ewuare, never got to witness. In spite of this, Benin continues to develop at a pace unseen before on the continent, as the scientific works of the Muslims have been fully decoded and translated, and their works studied throughout Benin as a source of extensive scientific knowledge.
  • Portugal: Forts and factories are built south of Kongo. Missionaries continue to be sent to Benin and Kongo. Exploration down the coast continues. Ship development continues. Walls continue to be built around Lisbon. A monopoly is declared in West Africa and the Cartaz starts to be issued. Resurrection of the Anglo Portuguese alliance is requested.
  • Japan: The Shinobi sent to Kyushi and Shikoku report to Ashikaga Yoshikage that dissent in the Daimyo of the area is high. Shimazu's presence in Shikoku has grown such that it holds more power on the island than Shogun Ashikaga Yoshikage himself. In addition, Kono and Shibuwaka are plotting a war against Shimazu and its allies. Shogun Ashikaga Yoshikaga instructs the Shinobi on the islands to infiltrate the city of Matzuyama and the administration of Shibuwaka. In the meantime, Ashikaga Yoshikage takes three students as his apprentices in his martial art. Kyoto and several other cities in Japan see growth. By now, the population of Japan is roughly 11 million people. It is expected to have 12 million people by 1475 if Japan continues on its current trend. The military sees large-scale improvements, namely in its equipment and manpower reserves. Japan responds to Korea's childish behavior by simply sending a cherry tree sapling to its king, with a note attached saying 'By the time this tree matures, we can only hope you will be capable of seeing reason.' Japan sees Korea's increased naval presence as a joke, though it bolsters its own naval patrols in case of Korean aggression.
  • King Jonathan I of Norway: I celebrate the marriage with Johanna, who iss much more kind and caring wife than Emma ever was. After the marriage, Johanna is discovered to be pregnant. This event is greatly celebrated and at the end of the year, three Children are born to Johanna, one boy and two girls. The boy is named Kristian and the Girls are named Sylvia and Svenne. I proclaim a celebration in the event of such a joyous occasion. I order the assimilation and Norwegianization of the Hebrides. I order the building of fortifications on Shetland and Orkney. I am pleased at the development of Scientae Dei into the center of knowledge in the North. After finally having a replica of the printing press in my court, a promising young noble is able to decipher the secrets of the printing press, gaining the blueprints at the end of the year. I order the building of 100 printing presses by the end of the next year. I begin to demonize the Danes in my schools in order to ensure they will never ascend to throne of Norway. The building of the palace in Geirangerfjord continues. The university in Bergen comes close to completion, with it attracting intellectuals in competition with the university of Copenhagen. We move 4000 troops to the Kingdom of the lsles to defend it from attack. Norway's Harold Adolfus paints the portrait of Mikkael to be put in the Palace at Oslo. Eric Jäggerson arrives at the Abbasid's Caliph Court.
  • After the complete travesty that was the Siege of Beirut, Duke John II of Naxos is ridiculed as a failure in the art of war, and the victory at Cyprus has been attributed to his brother, William, the Admiral of the Naxian Fleet. With the navy destroyed at Beirut by the Abbasids, John and William return to Naxos, leaving their brother-in-law Dragonetto Clavelli in charge at Cyprus. With enemies in the Neapolitans and the Abbsids, Duke John allows his other brother-in-law, Pietro Zeno, to negotiate with the Neapolitans and the Abbasids. Meanwhile, in Naxos, Prince Jacob departs for Barcelona in order to begin his fostering in the Aragonese court.
  • Chimu Empire: On a cold rainy day in late fall the Emperor falls from his throne, clutching his chest. He dies moments later in the arms of his personal guard, with his wife and son arriving only minutes afterward. The death of his ailing father puts his 20 year old son upon the throne, one of the youngest in the Empires history. Appointing his fathers personal guard a well paid sum for taking care of his father for so long, before incorporating his own personal guard into the Imperial Guard. The new Emperor takes the name Elka To Chinca, combining the cultures of the proud Chimu and Incan cultures into what becomes a new dynasty while at the same continuing the prior one of his father. Expansion to the south continues at a steady rate, with canals and irrigation systems and roads being built as the border goes farther southward. The Imperial Fleet is expanded to approximately 24 ships, where the new Emperor orders it halted. Research into new weaponry and better ships continues.

1445

The Squatter of Novgorod seems to gain fame and money as he travels and challenges potential rivals to do manly tasks, like squat on horses and give beer the attention it needs every day. It is said that he is a step closer to the fabled armor, although these are only rumors.

Pope John XXIII dies after a long reign as pontiff. His reign saw several crusades and conflicts in defense of Christendom and the partial resolution of the Great Schism.

With that said, I will be resigning from the Papal States, as I have become too busy to keep up with it day after day. If someone wants to take up this responsibility, by all means do so. If that player and/or players so wish, I can try to renovate the College of Cardinals for the next election. If you wish this, just let a mod know and they will tell me. I will still be a mod so feel free to ask me for things. Cheers, MP. 

A collection of scholars in Norway compile a complete history of the Kings of Scandinavia (Historia Regnum Scandia), which which quickly spreads throughout Scandinavia. Although it still adheres to the treasured national myths of Norway and Sweden, it is a landmark piece using rennaissance philosophies to criticize earlier accounts. Among these critiques is speculation on the discover of Leif Ericson from the Greenland Saga, putting forth the idea that Vinland is the same as Avalon of Arthurian fame

A terrible dispute between the chiefs of the Iroquois ends with the chiefs hurling large amounts of mud at each other (new Mud Event)

Ilyas Hamza Khan, Sultan of Delhi, conquers Punjab as the first step in completing his father's plans. He also annexes his vassal state of Garjat. In the same year, he sends his brother Yunus Khan to conquer Jangladesh.

Bengal faces unrest in its Burmese territories as it tries to enforce Islam in the region. However, the Sultan of Bengal responds with force, crushing the rebels and exacting retribution by killing ten non-Muslims for every one that raises arms against his rule.

Oman conquers Kathiawar, the territory next to Gujarat, as part of a process to increase its economic dominance in the region.


  • The Gurkani Sultanate: Sultan Zeeshan Beg Mirza continued his rule over the Sultanate. The Gurkani population rose to about 26 million with the people flocking to cities like Herat, Isfahan, Gamrun, Qazvin, Bukhara, Tabriz and Iskenderun; primarily due to their strategic position in the spice trade. In regards to religion, the Sultanate promoted Sunni Islam over all other Islamic sects, and advocated conversion to Islam from other Islamic sects. The military was primarily composed of medium-to-heavy cavalry, composite bow, lance, mace, and sword. Heavy cavalrymen wore plated chain mail or metal lamellar armor, with their horses also wearing leather or metal lamellar barding. The infantry was equipped with daggers and swords to be utilised in close combat against the enemy and elephants as well as carts were used for the transportation of supplies. Cannons were constructed to serve as siege weaponry whilst experimental muskets were beginning to be developed. Naval bases were established at Iskenderun, Trabzon and Gamrun to establish the presence of the Gurkani fleet in the Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea and the Persian Gulf respectively, keen on controlling any piracy. The Gurkani Navy developed galleys and carracks to augment the smaller patrol fleets. Agriculture and commerce were at the Sultanate's forepoint, with wheat, rice and barley being amongst the largest produced crops. To prevent the Sultanate from ever getting hit by a major famine, the individual Amirs also engaged in the storage of food supplies, which would be utilized in case of famine or otherwise exported. Fishery was promoted as well as it helped in sustaining the fishery villages that were present along the coast, as well as the major port cities of Iskenderun, Basra, Gamrun and Trabzon. The Sultanate mined large amounts of silver and gold, to serve as currency as well as ornaments and jewellery. Importance was also given on the development of proper roads for the merchants utilizing the trade routes through the Sultanate, with all caravans being armed and protected with a small detachment of guards. Meanwhile, the construction of educational madrassahs continued throughout the Empire, with the sultan keen on spreading education and knowledge amongst the populace of the Sultanate. The sultan sought to replicate the Islamic Golden Age that existed during the period of the Abbasids prior to the Mongol Invasion, and accordingly funded the teaching of Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, with Algebra, Geometry, Astronomy, Anatomy and Medicine being of prime importance. The lingua franca promoted throughout the Sultanate was also Persian, primarily due to the fact that Persian had existed as the language spoken by communities in the region for centuries and as such served as an excellent language for communication. The Sultanate continued to expand its territories into the Caucasus and the Persian Gulf islands. Under intense pressure from Persian and Gurkani nobility for his failure at preventing the Central Asian famine, Uzbek revolt, massive losses sustained at Mosul, the near collapse of the Compact of Iskenderun and total diplomatic failure by antagonizing almost every single neighbouring state, the sultan finally abdicates the throne and returns to the city of Bukhara to spend his remaining days. He is succeeded by his half-Persian son, Zeeshan Beg Mirza with Sultana Saima Daula as his consort. With their ascension to the throne as the rulers of the Gurkani Sultanate, Jalayirid territories are subsuquently annexed into the Empire. 
    • Khedivate of Trabzon: Amir Alexios IV Komnenos continued his reign over the Sultanate. Acting as a vassal to the Gurkani Sultanate, he would only be answerable to the Gurkani Amir. The military and the navy were developed along the same lines as their Gurkani counterparts, with a major naval base constructed at the city of Trabzon, where the Trabzon fleet was also situated. Trabzoni authorities continue to work on the construction of a fleet at Trabzon, working side by side with Castilian authorities. The Trabzon Amir, Alexios IV Komnenos would continue to develop the trade route leading from his Black Sea port of Trabzon, connecting it to the city of Tabriz, hoping to make the spice trade routes much more advanced and efficient.
  • Duchy of Thuringen: The city guard continues to defend the capital city of Erfurt. Our military grows by adding more recruits each year. We continue to trade again with our neighboring states. Farming goes well in our nation this year. The healthy population continues to increase by 3% each year. Karsten's improvement in the training area is continuing to show off. Our economy continues to try to rebuild itself from the collapse of 1439. We continue to invest in Ekehard's printing press, thinking it will help boost our economy of our nation back to what it used to be in 1438 before the collapse.
  • Aragon: Mourns the loss of Pope John XXIII, who was a great Man of God and will forever live in the memory of Christendom. The reconstruction of Barcelona is three-quarters of the way to completion, and most residents have been moved into their new homes. The Royal Bank of Barcelona: Continues its recovery, and it is hoped that expansion can once again begin by the end of the decade. Trade continues between the BRB and the Bank of St Birgitta. We declare our support for King Richard IV. We are aware of England's intentions to refrain from engaging in Continental affairs, but all the same we secretly ask Richard IV's court to consider this treaty. As per our previous promise with Naxos, we send a ship, accompanied with an armed escort, to bring the nine-year-old Prince Jacob to Aragon to be educated. His cousins are excited to see him for the first time. Crown Princess Arianne celebrates her 20th birthday, and a message is sent to Castile, requesting that a formal wedding between Arianne and Crown Prince Sancho be held next year, now that they have reached the age of majority. Arianne has become an intelligent strategist, a voracious reader, and skilful writer. The King has taught Arianne everything he knows, and feels confident that she is completely prepared for the throne. However, in the event that for whatever tragic reason Arianne should meet her end before she becomes Queen, the King has also given training to her sisters, although not as detailed and thorough as the heir apparent's. On the subject of Arianne's sisters, the King decides it is time for them to find husbands. We reach out to our allies and friends Castile, England, Desmond, Naxos, Italy and France, in search of young men to marry the two girls.
  • Abbasid Caliphate: Al-Najm returns to Damascus after congratulating Mehmed the Conqueror on his success
    • Two things. First, al-Najm was killed at the Battle of Mosul. Secondly, the Abbasids never aided the Ottomans, as the war ended in 1443 with the Treaty of Belgrade. This is all based of the work of other mods, notably Skymod. -Rexmod
  • Kingdom of France: With Richard III losing power in England, Louis XI welcomes him back to France with open arms, de facto making Brittany only a French vassal again (as the personal union has ended). After Louis XI and his steward travel and survey the kingdom, it is determined that the population of France to be number around nineteen million. Using this information, Louis XI begins to plan historical provinces for appellate courts throughout France, called Parlements. Jean Fouquet is commissioned to paint several pieces of the French court, including art of the French king, his sons, and his grandson. In foreign policy, with power changing in England, uneasiness between the former rivals seem to be restored. Although the economic panic seems to be over, building projects throughout France continue mostly in Paris. The development of Chauleaux continues, as well as trade with the Caliphate. More to come...
  • Chimu Empire: On his 21st birthday, the young Emperor dedicates a national holiday in honor of his father, who he gives the name "The Great Uniter", for his actions and his reign overseeing the explosion of the Chimu from a small statelet into the greatest empire in the Andes and uniting the states and nations under the same banner, the holiday is meant to celebrate the work of the fathers, essentially an overdone Fathers day. The Empire continues to research into better ship and weapon designs, and large castle like structures begin construction throughout the land, using towers and long stone walls with small metal shard catapults, and armed with archers to defend them. Several are designed around most major cities, and itl take a few years to complete them. Expansion to the south continues at a steady space and roads and canals are built as expansion continues. The Emperors brother turns 12, and the Emperor makes sure to do all he can with him in order to preserve the bond they had growing up. The Emperor's son turns three, and is taken to a central city in the middle of the Empire named Ica-Chinca, where he is to be raised with appreciation of the peoples of the Empire. Ports begin construction along the coast, deepening natural harbors and creating areas for ships to be constructed and get into the water quickly, rather than building them on land and pushing them into the sea.
  • Cologne: Archbishop Dietrich II thanks Norway for agreeing to the terms for the printing press and sends the relevant designs. The standing offer remains open. He also welcomes the new ambassador from Sweden. Meanwhile, Dietrich II is incredibly saddened to hear of Pope John XXIII’s passing; he looked up to His Holiness significantly and drew strength from his leadership to achieve the Concord of Luxembourg among other things. While the world waits for a new pope to be elected, Dietrich II becomes concerned that Stelzner’s Papal Bull may not be addressed with sufficient seriousness. Finally, there is another reporting of a “miracle”. A young boy reports that he and his family were suffering through a long, cold and particularly harsh winter, unable to find firewood, and his sister was getting sicker and sicker with an illness of the mind. She frequently confused her baby brother with a rogue pig! The young boy prayed to Adelphina to make his sister well again, and Adelphina answered his prayers, the boy claims, by allowing him to light old firewood with his fingers. Even though he still has to stop his sister from trying to cook the baby on the fire, at least they are not freezing. Archbishop Dietrich II, surprised and somewhat amused by this development, takes note of this miracle in his diary.
    • Essen: Abbess Sophia hears of the proposed Olafinian Reforms in Sweden, thanks Sweden for its backing of Adelphinian Reforms in this new age, and offers to send King Olaf additional copies of the Book of Adelphinian Reforms to distribute throughout the Scandinavian countries once united/
    • Swedish Diplomacy: Ambassador Nils Oxenstierna, Duke of Gotland, thanks the Abbess of Essen for these books. They shall be put to good use.
  • Mogadishu: The nation's income continues to grow, both from increased tariffs and from the Royal Trade Fleet. Our manufacturers expand and make more money. We expand southward to connect our realm. 10,000 local tribesman and foreign settlers became citizens of our nation last year due to our policies of land reclamation and immigration attraction. We build cannons for our ships, just five each for our 20 largest ships. We continue to train our army. With victory over Mombasa, we reorganize our realm and consolidate it. We begin piracy against Omani Ships to aid our ally the Bahmanids.
    • Bahmanid Dip: Though your measure is kind, the new Sultan, Ismail, wishes to end the economic warfare against Oman.
  • Ahom Kingdom: Susenphaa welcomes the ten elephants to the Ganesha Division and declares war on Koch, seeking to avenge Sujangphaa, his grandfather. Garghaon is urbanized as a city and roads are built and improved. (The war algo will be completed later today or tomorrow.)
  • Mayapan: Aztec expansion is heavily but discreetly monitored and preliminary defenses are prepared in case of war. The military is moved to the border and prepared to deal a blow to the Aztecs. Emperor Atlahua continues rallying the citizens of the nation for, what he believes, is an imminent war against the Aztecs. He stirs up nationalist sentiment with the citizens, increasing unity between the city-states. Integration of the southern city-states into the League is continued by the High Council. Each new state is expected to supply men to train and serve in the national army. The council seeks to improve commerce and communication between the many settlements of the Yucatan by constructing and maintaining roads between them. Work continues to renovate and update existing buildings, roads and to create plans for future upkeep and renovations.
  • After his succesful military campaigns, Archduke Albert V & II returns to Austria. As a show of his power, he remains in Bavaria for a while before letting his soldiers go back to their farms so they can rebuild the economic losses from war. The Treasury of the Bavarias confiscated and reallocated to Austria, He begins to plan a road network built in the roman style, speaking with his advisors as to how to go about this endeavour. His son, Ferdinand, who is still seeking a bride from the ranks of European heiresses, Mods please act in the place of NPC nations with suitable brides is commended for his work and granted the title Magistrate-General of Bavaria and sent to Munich to administer the Archduke's newly acquired territories. Albert begins to make a case as to the secularization of the Archbishophric of Salzberg, using the president set by the secularization of the Aquilean Patriarchate and the reunification of the Duchy of Bavaria which has historical de jure authority over the city of Salzberg and its territory. Albert, being now recognized as Duke of Bavaria and Head of the House of Wittelsbach, prepares to present this petition to his holiness the pope once a new one is elected. Meanwhile, an offer of "protection" (vassalization) is given to Wurttemberg, Montford Augsberg and Ulm in exchange for fealty.  MOD RESPONSE NEEDED  After hearing replies and rejections to his offer, Albert retreats into his study, calling upon various random objects, such as foreign coins, carrot cake, clay and a knife. Several hours later, he calls five of his most trusted advisors and swears them to secrecy. A few weeks later, the Archduke officially puts out a request for an Archducal Jewler and goldsmith. His planning has just begun...
    • The nations see no reason to be protected, yo're gonna have to work harder, as for a wife, dun worry I'll work on it -Sky
  • Iroquois Confederacy: Annoyed at the childish outburst and total lack of control between his chiefs, Chief Notaku orders that all meetings between his leaders be peaceful. Anyone found causing disruption will be subject to punishment. Construction on Tiohero continues at a moderate pace (2) with more huts appearing and a dock for the trade barges. In Nowadaga, the holy island of Hanowa is almost complete (1). More trees are cleared and gardens for the shaman school are planted. Notaku's diplomats have finally finished their studies and are ready to be sent to the surrounding tribes with the mission being diplomacy and cultural exchange. They leave after the first snow melt and are each accompanied by 20 braves. Land continues to be cleared in Skawennahawi to prepare for construction with The Wichita. Chief Notaku sends his most trusted military advisor, Chogan, to the Cherokee to teach them our ways of combat and to help them organize their armies. More copper is found and a serious operation begins to extract the precious material. Very slowly it can be seen throughout the Confederacy, adorning clothes and bags. In Winter, Chief Notaku's mother, Onatah, dies at the age of 75. Hanowa sees its first ceremony due to this, with over one thousand Iroquois in attendance gathering to mourn the woman who many revered as The Mother of the Confederacy. Struck with his mortality, Chief Notaku announces that he will be stepping down as head chief. He gathers his chiefs, elders and shamans to hold a vote. Concerned about the mud slinging, Notaku reminds them all that they are noble men and women and should present themselves as such. (Head Chief will be announced next turn.)
  • Bahmanids: Early in the year, Ali Nadeem Shah dies and is replaced by Ismail Shah. The new monarch grew up in the swirl of controversy and finger-pointing at court in the wake of the Hindustan War, and thus spurns the warlike ways of his father and grandfather. Nonetheless, he has every intention of increasing his power-he only sees war as an inefficient way of doing so. He proposes that Ilyas of Delhi "end the destructive and foolish rivalry of our fathers and grandfathers, and join India together in matrimony (Ismail marrying Ilyas’ daughter, and the offspring of this union placing the two realms in personal union). Together, we can dominate all India. Apart, we will always be weak.”(MOD RESPONSE NEEDED)
    • Yee sure accepted -Sky
    • Addendum: In OTL, the islands comprising the OTL Union territory of Lakshadweep joined with the city of Cannanore at the time for protection. I think it is entirely plausible for them to appeal to the Bahmanids instead, as they now control that area. (MOD RESPONSE NEEDED)
  • Brandenburg-Luxembourg: Heinrich and Michelle have their first children a pair of twins who are baptized Otto von Brandenburg, and Johanna von Brandenburg. Heinrich continues his military reforms by which are now going into their fourth year. funding of blacksmith and artisan guilds continue throughout his domains and he continues to sponsor the growth of cultural and intellectual circles in Berlin, Stettin and Luxembourg leading to the start of a sort of renaissance in Northern Germany. With the new printing press blueprints a small group of artisans and writers gain access to the new idea and start building a prototype based on the designs given. Reapproachment between the Hussites and Catholics continues with the help of Cologne and with the open enviroment for debate that is developing in Brandenburg. efforts to consolidate his influence over the nobility through improving the loyalty of the youths of the landed aristocracy and through grants and privileges continue. Construction of the first ship carrying cannons is started in Stettin's port (at this point several countries had this although I only plan to keep at one or two for now. Either way, I have a small navy right now and intend to keep it as such for the time). Construction of the new fortifications continues throughout the domains and efforts to improve roads for trade continue as well as for transportation in general. General discontent with the military situation in the east begins to grow as many military leaders are unsure how to feel about the power of the teutons who represent a long standing threat to Brandenburgian indendepence since the War of the Lions, and as the desire for a greater piece of Baltic trade grows amongst Brandenburgian merchants.
  • Poland-Lithuania: King Wladyslaw III asks Sweden for a bride. We ask Brandenburg for an alliance. We also ask Sweden to renew our alliance.
    • Poland: King Wladyslaw III focuses on consolidating the interior of the nation. King Wladyslaw III turns into Crown lands any fiefdoms that reverted to the Crown after their nobles owners died. A few poor merchants that are also lucky enough to be friends of the King are nobilized and given extremely small fiefs along with an annual wage after vowing to always support the King and the Royal Dynasty, especially in the Sejm. In the economic realm, growing cottage industries begin to develop, such as iron working and wool trading in the burgeoning burghs, and animal husbandry continues to displace grain farming. To keep trade moving Jews are not persecuted and taxes on goods are lowered, now that the war is over, to make smuggling unprofitable. The Duchy of Mazovia becomes a crown territory after a revocation of it from the rebellious Duke Janusz of Mazovia that died in prison, after his rebellion failed due to not being able to achieve the kind of support he hoped it would. King Wladyslaw III constructs a castle in Krakow. Krakow, Warsaw, Poznan, Bydgoszcz, Lublin, Lwow and Warszawa experiences a vast growth and increase in trade, attributed to a combination of lower taxes along with Jewish money-lending practices being de facto allowed and not persecuted.
    • Lithuania: King Wladyslaw III orders to initiate a gradual and peacefull process of resettlement of Kaunas,Vilnius,Trakai and Kernavė with highly motivated Polish settlers. In the economic realm, growing cottage industries begin to develop, such as iron working and wool trading in the burgeoning burghs, and animal husbandry continues to displace grain farming. To keep trade moving Jews are not persecuted and taxes on goods are lowered, now that the war is over, to make smuggling unprofitable. Kaunas, Vilnius, Trakai, Kernavė and Kiev experiences a vast growth and increase in trade, attributed to a combination of lower taxes along with Jew money lending practices being de facto allowed and not persecuted. Chernigov and Smolensk are offered one time chance to join our realm or face the full might of the united Polish-Lithuanian realm. [MOD RESPONSE NEEDED]
    • Moldavia: There was a small uprising in Moldavia against Voivode Ilias Musat and it got crushed. Now, he has two sons the 12 year old Roman and nine-year-old Stephen. Roman is in Poland, tutored by the King himself. In the economic realm, growing cottage industries begin to develop, such as iron working and wool trading in the burgeoning burghs, and animal husbandry continues to displace grain farming. To keep trade moving Jews are not persecuted and taxes on goods are lowered, now that the war is over, to make smuggling unprofitable. Suczawa experiences a vast growth and increase in trade, attributed to a combination of lower taxes along with Jew money lending practices being de facto allowed and not persecuted. A series of garrison forts are constructed along the border of the Ottoman Empire, the largest of the forts being named Fort Jagiello, and being quarter walled with duct trenches and heavy palisades defending the reinforced stone that lay behind it. Fort Jagiello being a new focal point to the Polish efforts to stop any Ottoman initiatives for expansion into the Polish realm as well as serving to honor and fulfill the 50 year NAP with the Ottoman Empire. The Hunyadi family are invited to the Moldovan court along with an offer of ennoblement. [MOD RESPONSE NEEDED]
    • The Hunyadi family more or less goes to Moldavia.
    • King Wladyslaw III marries his lovely bride Birgitta of Sweden in a lavish ceremony. The Hunyadi family are nobilized as promised and granted a fief and a castle in Bukovina.
    • Chernigov agrees to the offer of vassalization, but Smolensk instead turns to protection from the Grand Boyardom of Russia. -Rexmod
  • Earldom of Desmond: With the newly established Bank of Desmond, we embark on an ambitious quest of building up our duchy. First a large paved road network will connect all major towns and cities together, while smaller roads will be diverted to villages. There will be regular toll posts where a standard fee will be exacted based on number of people, age and cargo. The roads have already started in most of our territory, though now we are building on a larger scale using gangs of POW's and criminals (Road network finished in 1446). There are also plans into expanding and restructuring the town of Cork into a proper full-fledged city. We plan for there to be broad streets, gardens and parks, while we plan to build sewers beneath the streets to ensure proper sanitation. The city will be divided into several sections, commons for people to live, Administration for the town hall and the government of the Earldom, Industrial for the fledging industrial sector, Merchant district/market area and the dockyards. This expansion and upgrade of the city is expected to be finished in (1446) while the docks are also meant to be upgraded with extra space for building ships and docking ships. We take several loans from the banks to cover the expenses though we mainly use loot from the tribal wars to cover expenses. Currently the population of Cork is up to 6000. We try to make Cork the trade capital of Ireland by building a large marker place in Cork, and offering tax cuts for merchants who set up in Cork. We continue to fortify our lands, as well as increase our economy and military power. Building up of infrastructure is also continued. The current population is judged to be around 400,000. ~Posted for Red
  • King Jonathan I of Norway: With the relegalization of thralls in Norway, I see a way to pave an even greater path along the Norwegian Renaissance. I begin to take thralls from Lapland and put them to work as farmers, builders and fishermen, in order to allow the young generation to pursue their dreams without minial work. I specifically have the Monterig pass the rights of Christians thralls be that they can defend themself from abuse, attend church freely on Sunday, and have days off on the high holidays, while pagan thralls are to be treated as subhuman with no rights. With the Olafinian Reforms being passed I am crowned the King of the Isles and my son Jonathan the Háum Drottinn (High Lord) of Iceland. We ask the King of Tyrconnel to provide us with 3000 slaves in exchange for gold and with a secret term. If they deny, we will launch a slave raid on them. We also secretly propose them for us to protect them. Secret end ((Skyboi you're my only hope)). The Scandinavian Chronicles begin to attract attention in my court. A major surprise to me is the Head of Scientae Dei, a respected intellect in the worlds of scholars deduces the references to Avalon and Vinland are true and the same place. I hear him say one day "The land of Vinland discovered by Leif Eriksson and Avalon mentioned in the legends of Camelot both refer to the islands in a very similar manner. Because the two lands are mentioned in a very similar manner, I can only deduce that both Avalon and Vinland refer to a real land somewhere discovered by both the Bretons and the Norse. I believe the land lies to the west of us since the passages say "As he sailed to the end of the world" and in typical Norwegian mythology, the end of the world lies to the west of Norway. Calix Aureus begins to gain influence in the Baltic Sea in competition with the Bank of St. Birgitta, however this competition is beneficial as it enhances both groups. I feel urges from the Norwegian merchants to procure a port on the Baltic Sea. The university is close to completition
    • Yee- The Petty king of Tir Chonnail
  • Kingdom of England: Richard IV now rules England and Wales while Scotland is independent and the Earl of Desmond is his vassal in Ireland he now declares the civil war over. King Richard IV now sets about reform and advancement, he makes Richard Neville, the 5th Earl of Salisbury the Lord Steward and Edmund Beaufort, the 2nd Duke of Somerset his Lord Treasurer. Meanwhile, the King puts aside a yearly fund for the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge as well as the grammar schools while King Richard plans to open more with them being referred to as King Richard's Schools, they are fee paying but they also receive money from the Crown to help support their operation. They teach the Trivium at Grammar schools and the Liberal Arts at universities. The Universities of Oxford and Cambridge construct their own printing presses (their not hard to design or make I don't need blueprints) to help copy out manuscripts. To keep trade moving Jews are not persecuted and taxes on goods are kept low to make smuggling unprofitable. The King meets with Parliament to affirm his Coronation and he formally created two separate chambers of the English Parliament with the House of the Commons consisting of the Knights of the Shire and the Burghers and the House of Lords consisting of the nobles and the clergy. The King reaffirms Parliament is the only body with the right to levy taxes. We meet Benin people in the Port of Lisbon and offer a trade deal of coal, copper, tin, iron and wool in exchange for African goods such as Ivory, Gold, Palm Oil, Sugar and other goods
    • Benin Diplomacy: Benin is more than pleased to trade these items with with the English people. We look forward to the prosperous era of mutual trade and economic growth between our two nations.
  • Rwanda: Our Kingdom is housing the missionaries from Benin, and we are building temples across the nation. We will expand 10,000 square Kilometers this year, the largest we have ever, and to help with our expansion we have adopted a new technology- Stone Fortresses. These Fortresses can provide cover for archers in the case of enemy counter attacks, and we are using them heavily. BTW MODS- HAS BUGANDA ACCEPTED THE KURZIRST CONVERSION OFFER COMING FROM THE BENIN MISSIONARIES? Our road system is now the greatest in East Africa, far superior to Buganda. Kuzir missionaries taught my people about road networks and their importance in facilitating trade and movement.
  • Order of Knights Hospitaller: The two islands mourn the loss of their son John XXIII. Archbishop Robert holds a solemn Requiem Mass in the Cathedral of Our Lady, attended by all the leaders of the Order, the Church leaders, the local nobility, and thousands of ordinary Rhodians, who spill out of the Cathedral. In other news, Grand Master Jean receives his printed Latin Bible, and marvels at the readability of the text. The tome is sent around the island's parishes with a posse of armed knights so that all the priests and the laity can marvel at this new creation.
  • Benin: The patronage of Benin's abinibi societies continues, with increases in the amount of support given by the Oba and his government. The desire to see an increase in intellectual thought, not just among Benin's elite, but the growing and increasingly influential middle-class of the empire, has driven the imperial government's willingness to expend additional funds on the abinibi societies. Within the field of science and chemistry, crucial developments in the field of gunpowder are made by Bini clergy, seeking to enhance the capabilities of the substance, as well as make its manufacturing safer. The development of the corning process is made in Benin, with the gunpowder producers adding a liquid medium to the gunpowder mixture during production, greatly reducing the chances of a random ignition and explosion of the gunpowder mill. The altered gunpowder mixture is then processed into "press cakes", and then forced through sieves which provides the granulated gunpowder material. With this improvement, the ignition of the powder itself is far more efficient, with all of the new "grains" ignited at once as the flames can now pass between the individual grains, rather than just setting off the top of the old gunpowder mixture. Elsewhere, trade in the East African region continues, with increased merchant operations out of the port city of Sofala where much of the city's newfound wealth is both owned and brought in by the Bini merchants. In the kingdom of Rwanda, the Kuzir missionaries from Benin continue to assist that nation in developing itself, providing the king and his court vital intellectual skills, as well as uplifting the Rwandan people from their prior state of ignorance and teaching them both the Kuzir religion and Bini culture and sciences. In Kongo, the warriors sent by Benin continue to train the Kongolese people how to fight with superior weapons, and teaching them how to use and wear body armor. Merchants from Benin are also sent to Kongo to assist in the development of the local economy, and assistance with the creation of roads also given. Members of the clergy in Benin are sent to teach the locals how to operate plows and how and why to rotate crops during the planting and harvesting seasons, helping to improve the output of food production in that kingdom. As Benin's trading influence continues to grow, many merchants in Benin request permission from the Oba to establish trading relations with farther afield nations such as France and England, seeking to penetrate those markets and extract a profit from them. Seeing the wisdom in their words and their prior work in East Africa, Oba Isikhuan agrees to let them send off a trade delegation to any European nations they wish to trade with. The Oba makes it clear to the merchant caste that the government does not interfere with trade and economic aspects of the state with the exception of taxation and regulation of certain products, such as gunpowder and technologies. He states that Benin's policy toward trade is to jẹ ki lọ (Laissez-faire), or "let go" of it, as the official economic policy of the state. Expansion into the lands of West Africa continues, with the Bini settlers expanding into the region by 10,000 kilometers. Most of the native population is rounded up by the Benin Imperial Army, and sold off into slavery in the Ottoman Empire. The choicest of the female population are kept by the warriors of Benin, while the elderly are killed off as useless either as slaves or as obedient subjects of the empire. The children younger than the age of nine are kept by the state and sent off to Kuzir monasteries for indoctrination into the state religion and dominant culture of the empire.
  • King Olaf of Sweden: My children, Adele and Nils begin being more active and I hail my son as Jarl of Småland. As Queen Emma and my brother have been in a state of bliss recently, we send a diplomat to the Danish court, asking the Danish nobles to implement the Olafinian Reforms (Mod Response) ((Skyboi you're my only hope)). Nils Oxenstierna, due to need back in the country, is recalled, and in his stead his nephwe Jöns is sent as an ambassador to the Archbishop of Cologne. The Bank of St. Birgitta, suffering from the collapse, closes the branches in Dundee, Edinburgh, Aberdeen, Cork and Uppsala. Seeing Queen Emma irresponsible in her son's caretaking, I am taking tutelage over little Eric, and devote as many hours of my time to him. He seems happy around me, Isabella and the children. We send a letter to Queen Emma that Eric can be recalled anytime from Tre Kronor Castle in Stockholm. Chancellor Bengt has finished the list of Smådag (Small Council) members. These are: Nils Oxenstierna as Lord First Diplomat, Bengt Fleming as Lord First Lawmaker, Björn Vasa as Lord First General and Magnus Bure as Lord High Treasurer. I am pleased with the new council and begin implementing it. I begin a policy of expanding eastward in Finland, to reach the Russian border. The Squatter of Novgorod is asked by a diplomat of Sweden to join King Olaf's court in Stockholm. (Mod Response) ((Skyboi you're my only hope)). My dear wife Isabella becomes pregnant, and by the end of the year, a son is born to us, which we call Magnus, in Latin the Great. We begin the building of Riksdag, the capital of the Kalmar Union, and I grant my cousin Björn Vasa some land in Finland, east of Björko Island in the Kvarken of Bothnia. We grant a charter there for the city of Vasa, named after the glory of our dynasty. I set up large thrall markets in the south, to promote thrall catching in the North.
    • Olafinian reforms, I'm guessing yes. What's up with KK, though?
    • The Squatter comes to Sweden, still in search for the mystical armor of Adi Das.
    • Polish Dip: King Wladyslaw III asks Sweden for a bride and for a renewal of the alliance between our two great nations.
    • Swedish diplomacy: King Olaf offers his cousin, Birgitta, and offer through her the renewal of the alliance.
    • Polish Dip: King Wladyslaw III of course agrees to the renewal of the alliance and meets his lovely bride and makes arrangements to marry her. We also ask for a trade agreement with Sweden.
  • Croatia: The Kingdom conquer Bosnia, splitting it up in order to assure an effective control and extensive work on removing bogomilists from the region. The nation begins benefiting from Ragusa and the issues around Croatia allow it to economically prosper
    • Ragusa: The navy is developed now that peace is established, and resources from Croatia are much more accessible.
  • Bohemia: Wenceslaus V is pleased after his troops have liberated the Balkans. We send a demand for return of unlawful territory to Thuringia, demanding a liberation of the Landgrave of Hesse. Wenceslaus' children continue schooling. We send a formal alliance request to Russia. (Mod Response.) We deport all Turks and Arabs back to Ottoman territory, along with any Muslims that do not convert to Catholicism. We loot the Mosques of the region, increasing our supply of gold and other precious materials. The Mosques are then converted into Churches.With our recent liberation of Serbia and the surrounding lands in the Balkans, we send a request to the small nearby countries of Raska and Dukagjini, asking them if they would like to unite and join into the recently liberated Kingdom of Serbia. (Mod Response). We also agree to Cologne's terms for receiving a printing press.
    • Polish Dip: We demand that the HRE stays as it is, as the aggressive Emperor Wenceslaus V owns himself too many unlawful territories inside and outside of the HRE, quickly coming to the support of Thuringia.
  • Portugal: Factories established in Argun and Guinea-Bissau. Same stuff as last turn. (Super busy) Afonoso continues to look for a wife.
  • In the Kingdom of Italy, the arts and sciences continue to blossom under the reign of Niccolò Maria. The incentives for local nobles to patronize art, and then the best artists being moved up to patronage by the king himself both serve to create an atmosphere of innovation and artistic expression unseen elsewhere in the world. Matteo, who is nine years old and in line to both the Italian and Neapolitan thrones, continues his education by the most experienced military commanders, most learned scholars, most talented artisans, and most adept traders in all of Europe in his father's attempt to raise a well-balanced heir who can understand the needs of all important constituencies of the kingdom when he comes to majority. The new printing press is used by religious scholars to print copies of recently translated books. To store the materials, King Niccolò Maria orders the design of the Biblioteca Italiana to eventually store the materials. The Royal Academy of Italian continues its work on standardizing the Italian tongue and is expected to have a full presentation to the King by late next year.
  • In the Kingdom of Naples, Queen Mary continues to oversee the gradual reduction of feudal power in the nation, based upon the six duchies and the model of her husband's Italy to the north. The nation continues to celebrate its victory over the Ottomans and the liberation of Epirus from Muslim hands. The mosques now being deconstructed, the new Despot of Epirus (Giulio Visconti, Mary's brother-in-law) orders creations of new Roman Catholic churches, pointing to the healing of the schism. The deportation of Arabs and Turks continues, but as Epirus was never as Islamified as much of Ottoman Europe, the task approaches completion. In Croia, Stefan Thopia envisions uniting Dukagjini and Berat into the Principality of Albania, and offers to integrate both of these realms into his nation. (MOD RESPONSE NEEDED) In Morea, the deconstruction of mosques and construction of churches continues in earnest.
    • Mod Response, Rejected. -MP
  • Ottoman Sultanate: The sultan works to build schools across the Ottoman Empire and works on hiring people across the state. More Muslims are sent to the south and some Turks are sent to mix with the other Muslims in the areas. The army then is brought back to surround the city while the army tries to gain more troops to replace. With the loss of the city Murad goes into Ankara and works on his army and navy weaponry. The sultan then begins to work on trading with the Thrimids and the Caliphate. Murad begins to send traders past Thrimid's land to Afghanistan and some going into India. The sultan begins to work on making Ankara a new city as Murda said "Better then the other" as he works on making the city a trading center - while the army is trained. The sultan begins to work his military training. Slaves are sent to mosques and schools to learn Arabic and Ottoman Turkish and Qu'ran and told they should teach 50 people how to read and speak Ottoman Turkish and Arabic. We ask the Gurkani Sultanate for peace and to work on making a peace treaty. Murda begins to work on fixing his fame, but more and more troops and people begin to lose hope with Murda, with more and more people getting tried of his rule.
    • Wallachia (Ottoman vassal): The sultan begins to create 800 more mosques - mostly in the South, and recruiting peasants for the army. More imams are sent to Serbia in hope of converting the population. The troops are ordered not to fire unless fired upon, the troops begin to work on defenses. The castle is now worked on by peasants. With the riots across the vassals the government is sent in to stop any riots but the government halts their construction of mosques (but already-built mosques will stay) but Wallachian Muslims are recommended to move down south and to spread across the green areas while they are recommended to then populate the area.
  • Duchy of Thuringen: The city guard continues to defend the capital city of Erfurt. Our military grows by adding more recruits each year. We continue to trade again with our neighboring states. Farming goes well in our nation this year. The healthy population continues to increase by 3% each year. Karsten's improvement in the training area is continuing to show off. Our economy continues to try to rebuild itself from the collapse of 1439. We continue to invest in Ekehard's printing press, thinking it will help boost our economy of our nation back to what it used to be in 1438 before the collapse. We bribe the Emperor with money so we can keep the newly added Hesse lands.
    • Bohemian Dip: No.
    • Cologne Dip: (OOC: I may have lost track, but did you get the plans to the printing press from Ekkehard in Cologne, or are you merely investing in it from afar?)
  • Japan: The Shinobi in Kyushu Islands discover a conspiracy by Shimazu to take control of the island, which would oust Ouchi and several other clans in the area. Meanwhile, the Shinobi in southern Honshu work tirelessly to infiltrate the administrations of the clans that are less than loyal to the Shogun. In the meantime, the Japanese fleet sees the addition of several new ships. Many other ships are retired; age, lack of maintenance, and general wear-and-tear are the most common reasons why a ship would be retired. Each salvagable part goes to making a new ship. In the meantime, Japanese expansion in Hokkaido continues, displacing many Ainu from the region. While many of the Ainu intend to resist Japan's cultural and military expansion in the region, others accept Japanese culture. The religion and customs of Japan are adopted by many Ainu. In addition, the expansion efforts in Taiwan continue. Japan considers creating a colony in OTL Cagayan in the future, though the recent trouble with Tondo could spell disaster for colonists in the region. Until the Ashikaga's strength is what it was prior to the war with Korea and Tondo, aggressive expansion will cease. Explorers scour through OTL Indonesia while many more consider exploring OTL Kamchatka and other regions where Japan could expand.
    • Tondo is an important trading and diplomatic ally to the Ming, serving as the link between Southeast Asian, South Asian, even Western Asian (the Tondo trading network extended as far as the Maldives, and as far north as Japan) markets and China during the isolationist Haiji policy (which restricted maritime trade and such). I doubt the Ming would let you encroach on its ally's territory.
  • Korea: Continues to feel increasingly wary of the Japanese naval build-up, driving them to reject the Japanese request to reestablish formal relations as the state-council feel if they did, they would fall under Japanese influence. The cherry sapling sent by Japanese ambassadors is burned, and is sent back to Tokyo in charred ashes. A note is attached to it, declaring that unless Japan ceases military expansion and gives reparations to Korea for past warfare, Korea and Japan will never experience warm relations again. A set of anti–Japanese laws are implemented, barring Japanese nationals to ever set foot on Korea. Found Japanese nationals are forced to abandon their Japanese heritage in favour of Korean culture, and those who resist assimilation efforts are deported back to Japan. The Korean military is improved in response to potential Japanese aggression. Many older ships are scrapped for salvageable material to construct new ships, mainly Chinese-style war-junks, turtleships, and panokseon. Arsenals in Hanseong and Busan are expanded to have a higher capacity, being filled with gunpowder weapons such as cannons, hwacha, and multiple-rocket-launchers. A fourth of the royal fleet is stationed in the ports of Busan and Ulsan to guard Gyeongsang's coast, while more maritime patrols are conducted in the Korean Strait and the Eastern Sea to consolidate naval presence. Any found Japanese ships are escorted back to Japanese mainland. Korea continues to expand into Manchuria, but except expansion is concentrated in the northeast coastal areas instead of inland areas. Mahayana Buddhism under the Yi sect, which incorporates Confucian values and Muist rites, becomes increasingly ingrained into Korean culture. Korea continues to experience affluence under the encouragement of mercantile activities and commerce. Wealthy yangban patronize the arts and literature. Buildings are upscaled in beauty and sophistication to reflect Korea's growing affluence, while more people, especially those in the yangban, chung-in, and sang-in castes partake in education.

1446

Seeing the senseless use of the Empire’s wealth in the Balkan War, most of the states in western Germany switch their favor toward the Elector of Brandenburg against a perceived Bohemian dynasty.

The famed artist and founder of the Milan school, Filippo Brunelleschi dies, but not before his plans for the Biblioteca Italiana are submitted to the King of Italy.

The Squatter of Novgorod arrives in Sweden and finds himself a woman with whom he shall squat the rest of his life. It is a daughter of a minor noble, but the story of their gopnik love mesmerizes the whole royal court.

We're sorry for the inconvenience of the late starting of the turn. The time during which you can post in this turn after the next turn ends will be prolonged in order to ensure that nobody suffers due to this mistake. -Sky

I would like to complain about the modding situation in North America, There are the bad Iroquois events which I assume are trying to cause conflict, but fizzle out due to a lack of mod responses. Nothing gets done because we never get responses. Then he complains about our urbanization, citing a lack of beasts of burden, when 1. we due have beasts of burden ie dogs, 2. when we attempt to rectify that, we are ignored. So either we need a new mod, or the current mod starts actually modding. - Kaiser


  • Duchy of Burgundy: Burgundian traders, again reaching Benin's Malian territory, ask on behalf of Duke Philip for a trade agreement. Meanwhile, Burgundian explorers continue sailing down. Back home, Duke Philip opens the Bank of Antwerp, to join the recovering banking industry. As well, Brandenburg is asked if there is a princess available to be betrothed to the Burgundian heir, Charles.
    • Benin Diplomacy: Benin would be delighted to open up trade with the Kingdom of Burgundy. We look forward to shared prosperity for our two countries.
    • ​Brandenburgish Diplomacy: Heinrich inquires to the age of Charles.
      • Charles is thirteen. -Guy
  • The Gurkani Sultanate: Sultan Zeeshan Beg Mirza continued his rule over the Sultanate. The Gurkani population rose to about 26 million with the people flocking to cities like Herat, Isfahan, Gamrun, Qazvin, Bukhara, Tabriz and Iskenderun; primarily due to their strategic position in the spice trade. In regards to religion, the Sultanate promoted Sunni Islam over all other Islamic sects, and advocated conversion to Islam from other Islamic sects. The military was primarily composed of medium-to-heavy cavalry, composite bow, lance, mace, and sword. Heavy cavalrymen wore plated chain mail or metal lamellar armor, with their horses also wearing leather or metal lamellar barding. The infantry was equipped with daggers and swords to be utilised in close combat against the enemy and elephants as well as carts were used for the transportation of supplies. Cannons were constructed to serve as siege weaponry whilst experimental muskets were beginning to be developed. Naval bases were established at Iskenderun, Trabzon and Gamrun to establish the presence of the Gurkani fleet in the Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea and the Persian Gulf respectively, keen on controlling any piracy. The Gurkani Navy developed galleys and carracks to augment the smaller patrol fleets. Agriculture and commerce were at the Sultanate's forepoint, with wheat, rice and barley being amongst the largest produced crops. To prevent the Sultanate from ever getting hit by a major famine, the individual Amirs also engaged in the storage of food supplies, which would be utilized in case of famine or otherwise exported. Fishery was promoted as well as it helped in sustaining the fishery villages that were present along the coast, as well as the major port cities of Iskenderun, Basra, Gamrun and Trabzon. The Sultanate mined large amounts of silver and gold, to serve as currency as well as ornaments and jewellery. Importance was also given on the development of proper roads for the merchants utilizing the trade routes through the Sultanate, with all caravans being armed and protected with a small detachment of guards. Meanwhile, the construction of educational madrassahs continued throughout the Empire, with the sultan keen on spreading education and knowledge amongst the populace of the Sultanate. The Sultan sought to replicate the Islamic Golden Age that existed during the period of the Abbasids prior to the Mongol Invasion, and accordingly funded the teaching of Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, with Algebra, Geometry, Astronomy, Anatomy and Medicine being of prime importance. The lingua franca promoted throughout the Sultanate was also Persian, primarily due to the fact that Persian had existed as the language spoken by communities in the region for centuries and as such served as an excellent language for communication. The Sultanate continued to expand its territories into the Caucasus and the Persian Gulf islands. With Sultan Zeeshan Beg's aunt already married to the Sultan of Delhi and the recent matrimonial alliance binding Delhi and Bahamani together, the Gurkani formally offer an alliance to Delhi [Mod Response]
  • The Delhiboi says "Eyy lmao okay." -Sky
  • Duchy of Thuringen: The city guard continues to defend the capital city of Erfurt. Our military grows by adding more recruits each year. We continue to trade again with our neighboring states. Farming goes well in our nation this year. The healthy population continues to increase by 3% each year. Karsten's improvement in the training area is continuing to show off. Our economy continues to try to rebuild itself from the collapse of 1439. We continue to invest in Ekehard's printing press, thinking it will help boost our economy of our nation back to what it used to be in 1438 before the collapse.
  • Khedivate of Trabzon: Amir Alexios IV Komnenos continued his reign over the Sultanate. Acting as a vassal to the Gurkani Sultanate, he would only be answerable to the Gurkani Amir. The military and the navy were developed along the same lines as their Gurkani counterparts, with a major naval base constructed at the city of Trabzon, where the Trabzon fleet was also situated. Trabzoni authorities continue to work on the construction of a fleet at Trabzon, working side by side with Castilian authorities. The Trabzon Amir, Alexios IV Komnenos would continue to develop the trade route leading from his Black Sea port of Trabzon, connecting it to the city of Tabriz, hoping to make the spice trade routes much more advanced and efficient.
  • Order of Knights Hospitaller: Work begins on a new class of galley for the Order's fleet. Designs are drawn up and before the end of the year the keels for three of the large new vessels have been laid down. The Order's sole printed Bible continues to make a procession around the islands. The book's entourage has grown: it is now accompanied by ten mounted knights, one priest of the Order, and a porter, lector, acolyte, and subdeacon. When the group reaches a town, they form a relgious procession, with the priest holding the book up for all to see, whilst four knights on foot hold a baldachin (canopy) the four minor clerics spread incense, carry a processional cross and chant, and the remaining six knights remain mounted to guard the precious book. Both Latin and Greek Rite people turn out to see the procession and look upon the Holy Writ. Priests of both rites, as well as the few literate laymen of the towns, inspect the actual contents in the towns' churches, marvelling at how a machine could produce such well-formed letters.
  • Mogadishu: The nation's income continues to grow, both from increased tariffs and from the Royal Trade Fleet. Our manufacturers expand and make more money. We expand southward to connect our realm. 10,000 local tribesman and foreign settlers became citizens of our nation last year due to our policies of land reclamation and immigration attraction. We build cannons for our ships, just five each for our 20 largest ships. We continue to train our army/
  • Ahom Kingdom: After the Ahom victory at the Second Battle of Bengmara, Ahom asks for surrender from Koch. (MOD RESOPNSE, PLEASE). The news races back to Chariadeo, and a massive celebration is started. The Koch have lost! Ahom forces prepare to continue fighting, if the offer of peace is not accepted.
  • Bohemia: We continue to influence electors. Wenceslaus V's children continue going to school. With our recent liberation of Serbia and the surrounding lands in the Balkans, we send a request to the small nearby countries of Raska and Dukagjini, asking them if they would like to unite and join into the recently liberated Kingdom of Serbia. (Mod Response). With our new printing presses, after having agreed to Cologne's terms, we begin to print off Bibles first and foremost, with other books coming later. We tell Poland to piss off and stay out of the HRE.
    • ​They refuse. -MP
  • Rwanda: The Benin Kuzir missionaries have helped the nation develop so much, and the nation is much better educated at this point. Those stone fortresses we have build for war with the tribes have turned into small towns, and our territory has increased by tremendously at this point. There is a large movement in Rwanda pushing for a Rwandan Empire to be proclaimed, yet this has yet to happen. Our road system is improving a lot, and the King's palace which used to be a hut is now replaced with a primitive stone building. We have started raiding Bugandan Villages on a small scale as they have not answered whether they will convert to Kuzirism. Survivors in the villages are sold as slaves to help build the new stone buildings. We issue the final warning to Buganda, convert to Kuzirism and follow the religion of rationality, or face conquest. **Mod Response Required.
    • ​They refuse. -MP
    • Rwanda: Then we must invade Buganda. The invasion of Buganda begins.
  • Bahmanids: Ismail Shah happily celebrates his marriage to Noura of Delhi, and the ascension of the Laccadive islands to the Bahmanid lands. Communications are improved through the empire by the use of a system of royal riders on the roads built by Firuz Shah. The port of Kolkota is expanded to increase trade revenue, while a branch of the University of Gulbarga is opened in Sri Lanka.
  • Chimu Empire: The Empire continues constructions of fortifications and essentially castles throughout the Empire, with some being favored along canals to increase defensive measures. Expansion to the south continues and canals, forts, and roads are built as the Empire expands. Settlements to the south are accompanied with Culn units of at least 50 men per five village, ensuring the Empire's ability to defend itself. Research into better ships and weaponry continues. The Royal Fleet reaches 28 ships and tests with installing mini catapults on ships begins, being mostly bows instead of actual catapults.
  • After the loss of Naxos and the Massacre of Beirut, Duke John II Crispo is deposed by his brother, the new Duke William I Crispo. Duke William quickly outlines the politics of his rule to the other lords and ladies of Naxos: he promises the return of the Naxian homeland, a stable economy, and limited expansion. He also outlines the line of succession; even though Duke John has been deposed, Prince Jacob, his son, is still the Crown Prince to the Duchy of Naxos, although Duke William's son, Francis, is now third in line, skipping ahead of John's daughters, Catherine and Florence. William's first matter of business is to issue the Treaty of Kalamata to the Abbasids, hoping to reclaim the Naxian homeland. Meanwhile, the now Prince John of Naxos is exiled from the Duchy, becoming an ambassador to the Portuguese colonies, the Castilan colonies, and Benin. He takes five ships from the Naxian fleet and sails to the west coast of Africa to trade.
    • Benin Diplomacy: It would be our pleasure to open up a dialogue with the people of Naxos.
  • Brandenburg-Luxembourg: Heinrich after looking over several documents from his father's and grandfather's reign comes to realize that the Treaty of Berlin was never acknowledged by the Bohemian rulers at the time and as such he renounces all commitments to the defence of Bohemia in times of war unless it is mutually agreed upon and as such, Heinrich. Despite this with the continued tensions that have existed since the war of the lions as the Teutons acted in a preditory manner in an attempt to grab land, the militarization of the Brandenburg-Teuton border continues out of fear of possible future conflict with the Monastic state, specialy given their intolerance toward heretics and Brandenburg's conciliatory stance toward the hussites. Teutonic Merchants are slowly muscled out of trade opportunities by Brandenburgian oficials and Brandenburgian merchants who prefer doing business with Burgundian, Cologne and Scandinavian merchants due to friendlier relations with those states. Military reforms continue to as the training of the new force remains on course and the size of the force is standing at 14,000 with another 4000 being trained. Training of gunmen and crossbowmen proves far easier and less costly then training bowmen over the course of a lifetime and as such more reliance on crossbowmen and Arquebusiers lines grows, and the infantry formed mainly of pikemen and the slow but progressive implementation of Plate armor is introduced to better defend against the new forms of weaponry. Hussite siege and defense tactics with cannons and weagons continues to be formally introduced to the new model forces as cannons are increased in numbers though most of the artillery and siege equipment remains catapults and ballestas. The number of heavy cavalry used is heavily reduced as lighter cavalry is introduced in larger numbers to take advantage of the mobility provided by wagons.The printing press starts to make inroads in Brandenburg and Luxembourg as the device proves its usefullness for standardizing publication and the press industry starts to grow because of this. WIth the growth of trade and business in Luxembourg and in Brandenburg small guilds of merchants begin setting up local banking cooperatives learning from the mistakes of the banking collapse of the 1430s in the hre ultimately though this is still very small as many are hesitant to trust the banking system again but the scheme shows potential. Metal smithing guilds and artisan guilds continue to grow in large amounts as more people join trades. The intellectual circles of Stettin, Berlin and Luxembourg continue to flourish and development of alchemy divisions and natural sciences grow as the interest in these areas grows. A prefered trade agreement is offered to Cologne, and Burgundy due to the growing trade relations with these countries. Heinrich sends out delegations to Cologne, Holstein, Brunswick, Burgundy, and the smaller central and Northern German States to build a road system connecting better the different German states from the Rhine to the Baltic to improve trade and transportation in the region (Players and Skoyboi my only hope please respond.) Naval expansion continues to a smaller degree. Heinrich and Michelle have another child a boy who is baptized as Karl Wilhelm von Brandenburg. 
  • The NPC nations see no reason not to and most accept, although some due to financial situations postpone the building of roads.
  • Burgundiam Dip: intrigues by the proposal, Burgundy accepts.
  • Cologne: The standing offer for the printing press remains open. Archbishop Dietrich II patiently awaits the election of a new pope. Trade, which had been going badly during the small economic downfall in Europe recently, starts to go well again.
    • Essen: With Abbess Sophia’s help, Stelzner continues to print Bibles and other holy texts, and sets his sights on further general books of reference to distribute to universities. Meanwhile, canonesses return from Brandenburg to the University of Essen, bringing significant knowledge with them. Abbess Sophia is encouraged by this and sets her sights high: if she can make the University of Essen somehow shine above the rest with its resources, academics from far and wide will flock to Essen. Accordingly, she sends a letter to Italy, asking the government to send her a copy of some of their recently-translated religious texts.
      • Brandenburg Diplomacy: Heinrich's envoy requests that Cologne join in the construction of a road network throughout the Rhineland and North Germany to improve overland trade in the hre and transportation in general.
      • Italian Diplomacy: The clerics responsible for the use of the printing presses in Italy gladly send printed copies of works of men like St. Thomas Aquinas, St. Augustine, and the recent popes' bulls to Essen.
  • Kingdom of England: Richard IV continues to rule from London as King of England supported by Richard Nevielle and Edmund Beaufort as two of his most senior councillors. As the Kingdom is in a time of peace the king works at improving the country with funding to the Universities and Grammar schools continuing while the Printing press continues to be used mainly in the Universities and churches for the copying of texts with no large transfer to commercial printing. The trade with Benin is benefiting the nobilty of our nation mainly as they benefit most from the import of luxury goods while more mines have to be set up to export. Margaret of York is born to the King.
  • King Mikkael I of Norway: Another year falls upon us in the glorious kingdom of Norway. As norway continues to prosper and grow, I feel euphoria for my people as the glorious kingdom of norway continues to grow both population wise and culturally. My young children and wife go to Öland to visit the former King Kristjen and take at stop at the Swedish court to visit their Brother and Uncle. Before returning home. The import of Thrall goes wonderfully as they are put to work in mines fisheries and farms across norway and the colonies. We propose to sweden to split Lapland into defined areas for both countries to raid. Continued raiding of the laps to bring slaves brings wealth. I offer the king of sweden Harold Adolfus to paint his photo as the man cannot refuse a personal offer from the king of Norway. With the finishing of the University of Bergen this year we begin to attract scholars and intellectuals from all around thanks to the near limitless knowledge available at Scientae Dei. The Scientae Dei is attached to the University for easier access. A son is born to Joanna this year and with great pleasure do I celebrate. I name him Olaf after his uncle and the first Christian king of Norway. In an effort to further increase the slave trade in ireland and ties with Ireland I offer the same deal I offered to Tyrconnel to the King of Connacht and Tyrone 2000 slaves and 3000 slaves, respectively, for gold and secretly protection. Mod Response. I also ask the King of Desmond if he would want to have a slave trade deal with Norway as using our influence we would bend the trade routes from the baltic to go through desmond. In Trøndelag this year a young man finds a sword later found to be the sword legbiter in a field. Bought by me, I order the top weaponmakers of Trøndelag to reforge it into a coronation sword to be used in ceremonies. After the arrival of Eric Jaggerson in Norway with relics and goods I become very interested sending an explorer down to Africa paying the Cartaz and entering the court of the Bini Oba. He presents the Blueprints of the printing press to the Oba after being impressed by his wealth.
  • Accepted out of fear. -Sky
    • Kingdom of the Isles: Further efforts to re-Norsize the Hebrides continue with Scots who refuse to adopt Norse culture or leave being made thralls. Troops are sent there to keep the peace. Movement of slaves through the Hebrides begans to attract merchants there. A city along the trade route intended to being a trade port is founded called Uværståsted. The Intended capital is founded in Orkney. Fortifications are built in Shetland and the Hebrides. A riksdal is formed intending to serve the king while he is away.
    • Jarldom of Iceland: The status quo is maintained in Iceland with fisheries and such being built. The capitol called Heimilidrottins is built in one of the most temperate areas of Iceland with it attracting people to serve as Jarls. In place of the háum Drottinn Jonathan a regency council is formed to govern it.
    • Benin Diplomacy: We graciously accept the offer provided by the Norwegian monarch. Out of respect and thankfulness for this piece of technology, we have arranged the delivery of blueprints regarding the construction of blast furnaces, as well as five thousand hand cannons we have produced in the empire.
  • Benin: Trade with Europe increases under the lax oversight of the imperial government of Benin. With the exception of advanced sciences and weaponry, all other goods produced within the lands of Benin have been opened up to the merchants of Europe and the Middle East. With the policy of jekilo in effect, a portmanteau of the term jẹ ki lọ, or to "let go", Benin's economy is free to operate and grow as it may, with the merchant caste of Benin given a free hand in making deals with foreign powers for mineral and agricultural goods, as well as industrial goods that some European states cannot yet manufacture. In East Africa, Kuzir missionaries continue to expand their efforts throughout the region, preaching and teaching to the native African populations of southern Africa, Madagascar, and the eastern coastline of the continue, as well as assisting the nations of Kongo and Rwanda in developing their own intellectual capacities as nations. Expansion into the lands of the Balante people of Guinea begins, with 10,000 kilometers of land seized by the local ogun unit stationed in the region on behalf of the ever-growing Bini population. The proximity of the port city of Dakar allows the Balante to be quickly rounded up and sold off into slavery in the Ottoman Empire to continue to fulfill Benin's trade arrangements with the Ottoman Turks. Back in Benin, growth of the industries in the empire begins to expand under the patronage of the imperial government. The expansion of blast furnaces once predominately located within the region of the capital city of Edo, have been expanded to other locations such as Timbuktu, Gao, Segou, Dakar, Kokoro, and Apata. This significantly expanded the production of iron within Benin, and thus the production of the material at cheaper prices, now that the transportation of iron from the Niger Delta has been greatly reduced with the rise of local production. The hospitals that were planned for the cities of Timbuktu, Gao, Niani, Djenne, Kokoro, and Dakar have all been constructed, and now plans to expand the network of hospitals to other cities is underway in Sikasso, Korhugo, Apata, and Oko, and Oyo-Ile, as well as a two in the port city of Eko and one more in Dakar. The clergy specializing in the field of medicine have expressed their desire to expand the ability of the commoner to access proper medical care within the empire's largest cities, and have pushed to have the Oba provide a fund to maintain these facilities. All monks and nuns within the clergy's medical branches are expected to uphold the ideals of hygiene within the hospitals they are sent too, including the removal of waste from the building and ill, cleaning of hands, feet, and bodies of both themselves and those they care for, as well as ensure that those with particularly putrid and vile illnesses are isolated from the rest of those patients within the hospital. Elsewhere, a Kuzir clergyman specializing in astronomy by the name of Aisosa Nosariere, a prominent member of an abinibi society in Benin, uses his vast family wealth to construct a grand observatory in the city of Nara, where the clear skies above the city grant an unparalleled view of the stars. With the support of the local ogun and Metropolitan Army garrison, the observatory is built relatively quickly outside the city walls upon a hill, where Aisosa and his aides shall observe the stars in their quest to better understand them, using the knowledge of the ancient Greeks and Romans greatly expanded upon by the Muslim scholars originally stored in the University of Timbuktu. The printing press in imported to Benin from Norway through the Norwegian traders negotiating with Bini merchants operating out of the port of Lisbon.
  • in Austria, Archduke Albert continues to have secret meetings with his closest advisors. Near the month of March, the Archduke finds an official jewler for the Archduchy, and commissions him to craft him a few wonderful pieces of goldwork and silverwork. However, what the public does not know, however, is that the goldsmith's main purpose is to forge a large sum of foreign coins, both in silver and gold. The man is paid well for his silence. He makes a big show to his rivals about how HE is the Archduke's personal jewler, secretly brewing their resentment. The Archduke told him in confidence that this would give him the "proper respect that he deserves". In truth, really, the boasting brewed resentment, resentment that the Archduke will later use. Meanwhile, the nation recovers from the past years of warfare as the economy booms along with a small increase in the population as the children of eager soldiers returning home survive past their first year, drastically increasing their survival rate. Ferdinand continues to seek a wife from the ranks of European Heiresses Mods please act on the behalf of NPC nations with suitable brides (just respond when you find one, k?)
  • The Aragonese government, after secret communication with England, drops the treaty proposal. We once again ask Castile to proceed with the wedding of Crown Princess Arianne and Crown Prince Sancho of Castile. The Royal Bank of Barcelona has largely recuperated from its crash a few years ago and looks to re-expand gradually into foreign countries. We request to establish branches of the Royal Bank in Corsica and to re-establish the Bank in Genoa. The reconstruction of Barcelona nears completion, and is due to finish on schedule in 1450. Naval growth has stagnated over the years, and attention is once again brought to the Royal Armada. We initiate a grand overhaul, decommissioning the majority of our ships and replacing them with newer, more advanced models. New cannon designs are finalised and introduced into the navy and the army.
  • Iroquois Confederacy: After much deliberation amongst themselves, the leaders of the respective tribes vote the Seneca chief, a great warrior named Apenimon, to be the next leader of the Iroquois. As his first order of business, he holds a meeting immediately after his commencement. The consensus amongst his fellow chiefs is that there is not enough opportunity for their braves to fight. The are all warriors and many grow restless. Trying to stay true to his predecessors, Apenimon and the chiefs come to an agreement. A percentage of his army, with permission of our allies (Wichita and Cherokee), will be sent to fight in allied armies. They will be on a two year rotation. We can spare 1500 braves to each nation if they so wish. Due to the always present threat of invasion, Chief Apenimon creates the first permanent fighting unit. He recruits 500 elite braves to be full-time soldiers. They will reside near the small village of Canienga (OTL Ithaca, NY). Their first orders are to construct a fort nearby the village, this location will allow them to repidly deploy to any front. When they are not training, they will assist in expanding Canienga. Once Chogan returns from helping the Cherokee military, he will take command of this unit.
  • Wichita Dip: We agree to your proposal and send the Braves to the Western border in order to defend the wall under construction. We also propose a partnership in the taming of large animals in order to make construction easier.
    • Iroquois Dip: Please pull from the braves you were sent if extra hands are needed in taming/construction for taming. We can not afford to send anymore/
  • Papal States: Jacobus Palladinus de Teramo is elected pope, taking the name Callixtus III. (NOTE TO PEOPLE: Callixtus will be a placeholder pope for a year or two whilst I renovate the College of Cardinals. So don't worry, player elections will continue to occur). The new Pontiff is crowned in the usual ceremony, and gives the crowds a blessing.
    • 'The Papacy is under new management. Prepare yourselves. ~Cal.
    • Polish-Lithuanian Dip: We congratulate his most holiness on his election as the new pope. We attend his crowning and ask for his blessing, stating that we will always be here to support him.
  • Ottoman Sultanate: The sultan works to build schools across the Ottoman Empire and works on hiring people across the state. More Muslims are sent to the south and some Turks are sent to mix with the other Muslims in the areas. The army then is brought back to surround the city while the army tries to gain more troops to replace. With the loss of the city Murad goes into Ankara and works on his army and navy weaponry. The sultan then begins to work on trading with the Thrimids and the Caliphate. Murad begins to send traders past Thrimid's land to Afghanistan and some going into India. The sultan begins to work on making Ankara a new city as Murda said "Better then the other" as he works on making the city a trading center - while the army is trained. The sultan begins to work his military training. Slaves are sent to mosques and schools to learn Arabic and Ottoman Turkish and Qu'ran and told they should teach 50 people how to read and speak Ottoman Turkish and Arabic. We ask the Gurkani Sultanate for peace and to work on making a peace treaty. Murda begins to work on fixing his fame, but more and more troops and people begin to lose hope with Murda, with more and more people getting tried of his rule.
    • Wallachia (Ottoman vassal): The sultan begins to create 800 more mosques - mostly in the South, and recruiting peasants for the army. More imams are sent to Serbia in hope of converting the population. The troops are ordered not to fire unless fired upon, the troops begin to work on defenses. The castle is now worked on by peasants. With the riots across the vassals the government is sent in to stop any riots but the government halts their construction of mosques (but already-built mosques will stay) but Wallachian Muslims are recommended to move down south and to spread across the green areas while they are recommended to then populate the area.
  • In the Kingdom of Italy, the commission of the Royal Academy of Italian presents its findings to King Niccolò Maria Visconti. The King is extremely encouraged by the progress and how loyal the academics and clerics have been to the Italian of Dante, Boccaccio, and Petrarch. Now, with Italian standardized and with the continental spread of the printing press, the King decides to order creation of presses for secular works as well. The first books are copies of The Divine ComedyThe Decameron, and The Sonnets. The reprinting of these great Italian authors sparks a sudden renewed interest in literature and many begin writing works of prose and poetry. With the death of Brunelleschi, the Milanese school is thrown into turmoil as various artists compete to become the new leader of the school. Teodosio Giosuè, known for his The Christening of 1430, is the current presumptive leader but other more experimental artists are slowly gaining traction among the patrons. Brunelleschi's plans to build the Biblioteca Italiana begin to be put into practice, drawing on grandiose Roman-based architecture.
  • In the Kingdom of Naples, Mary I Anjou, wife of Niccolò Maria Visconti, continues to reign over a relative boom in prosperity. She sends congratulations to Pope Callixtus III on his election on behalf of herself and her family, the new Pontiff being a Neapolitan by birth and Italian by residence. In the Despotate of Epirus, the new Despot, Giulio Visconti, continues to oversee the construction of new churches and finalizes the deportation of Turks and Arabs. In Epirus, Italian settlers are welcomed in, giving the vassal a multicultural flair. In Croia, Stefan Thopia is disappointed in the rejections by Berat and Dukagjini, but is determined to eventually conquer these states with Neapolitan assistance. In the Duchy of the Morea, conversion of mosques into churches continues and Italian settlement is also encouraged. The new Greek possessions of Naples helps improve its trading prospects.
  • Poland-Lithuania: King's Wladyslaw III lovely bride Birgitta of Sweden gaves birth to twins, a boy and a girl, the boy named Aleksander and the girl named Anastazja. Roman son of the King's vassal Voivode Ilias Musat of Moldavia is in Poland, tutored by the King himself. We begin to spread disconent within the Grand Boyardom of Russia sensing that their collapse is inevitable, only trying to speed it up. We begin to generously bride and coerce any Russian lord we can, in the Grand Boyardom of Russia, to switch allegiance from the Republic of Novgorod to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, which is essentially a Slavic Feudal Monarchy. [MOD RESPONSE] ((Skyboi you're my only hope))
  • No.
    • Poland: King Wladyslaw III focuses on consolidating the interior of the nation. King Wladyslaw III turns into Crown lands any fiefdoms that reverted to the Crown after their nobles owners died. A few more poor people that are also lucky enough to be friends of the King are nobilized and given extremely small fiefs along with an annual wage after vowing to always support the King and the Royal Dynasty, especially in the Sejm. In the economic realm, growing cottage industries begin to develop, such as iron working and wool trading in the burgeoning burghs, and animal husbandry continues to displace grain farming. To keep trade moving Jews are not persecuted and taxes on goods are lowered, now that the war is over, to make smuggling unprofitable. Krakow, Warsaw, Poznan, Bydgoszcz, Lublin, Lwow and Warszawa experiences a vast growth and increase in trade, attributed to a combination of lower taxes along with Jew money lending practices being de facto allowed and not persecuted.
    • Lithuania: Chernigov is integrated into the realm. King Wladyslaw III focuses on consolidating the interior of the nation. King Wladyslaw III orders to initiate a gradual and peacefull process of resettlement of Kaunas,Vilnius,Trakai and Kernavė with highly motivated Polish settlers. In the economic realm, growing cottage industries begin to develop, such as iron working and wool trading in the burgeoning burghs, and animal husbandry continues to displace grain farming. To keep trade moving Jews are not persecuted and taxes on goods are lowered, now that the war is over, to make smuggling unprofitable. Kaunas, Vilnius, Trakai, Kernavė and Kiev experiences a vast growth and increase in trade, attributed to a combination of lower taxes along with Jew money lending practices being de facto allowed and not persecuted.
    • Moldavia: There was a small uprising in Moldavia against Voivode Ilias Musat and it got crushed. Now, he has two sons the 13 year old Roman and ten-year-old Stephen. In the economic realm, growing cottage industries begin to develop, such as iron working and wool trading in the burgeoning burghs, and animal husbandry continues to displace grain farming. To keep trade moving Jews are not persecuted and taxes on goods are lowered, now that the war is over, to make smuggling unprofitable. Suczawa experiences a vast growth and increase in trade, attributed to a combination of lower taxes along with Jew money lending practices being de facto allowed and not persecuted. A series of garrison forts are constructed along the border of the Ottoman Empire, the largest of the forts being named Fort Jagiello, and being quarter walled with duct trenches and heavy palisades defending the reinforced stone that lay behind it. Fort Jagiello being a new focal point to the Polish efforts to stop any Ottoman initiatives for expansion into the Polish realm as well as serving to honor and fulfill the 50 year NAP with the Ottoman Empire.

1447

In the Grand Boyardom of Russia, a number of the nobles begin to chide at the continued republican structure of the nation. Eager to bring back the days of the Kievan Rus’, they begin to plot a coup to overthrow the Grand Boyar.

In the town of Toulouse, France, a Jewish man is suspected in the ignominious humiliation of a young minor noblewoman. Soon after the event, she is found dead. This leads to an immediate outcry among the Christian community, with the Archbishop of Toulouse condemning the Jewish community in a notable sermon. Tensions boil over with a pogrom taking place the next morning. Within a month, riots against Jewish neighborhoods have broken out in Germany, Italy, Castile, Aragon, and Portugal.

As a result of the anti-Semitic fervor sweeping across Europe, there amounts a large groundswell of support among the Castilian clergy to re-establish the Spanish Inquisition. This is only enhanced when the Cardinal of Castile approaches the Castilian king to reinstate the Inquisition.

A large fire breaks out in Timbuktu. In its wake are the university, the newly constructed hospital and the great library, with all of its major contents destroyed. Only a few tomes, notably those on astronomy in the possession of Nosariere, survive.


  • The Gurkani Sultanate: Sultan Zeeshan Beg Mirza continued his rule over the Sultanate. The Gurkani population rose to about 26 million with the people flocking to cities like Herat, Isfahan, Gamrun, Qazvin, Bukhara, Tabriz and Iskenderun; primarily due to their strategic position in the spice trade. In regards to religion, the Sultanate promoted Shia Islam, and advocated conversion to the Zaidi sect from other Islamic sects, often engaging in forced conversions. The military was primarily composed of medium-to-heavy cavalry, composite bow, lance, mace, and sword. Heavy cavalrymen wore plated chain mail or metal lamellar armor, with their horses also wearing leather or metal lamellar barding. The infantry was equipped with daggers and swords to be utilised in close combat against the enemy and elephants as well as carts were used for the transportation of supplies. Cannons were constructed to serve as siege weaponry whilst hand cannons and rocket launchers were developed as gunpowder became increasingly popular. Naval bases were established at Iskenderun, Trabzon and Gamrun to establish the presence of the Gurkani fleet in the Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea and the Persian Gulf respectively, keen on controlling any piracy. The Gurkani Navy developed galleys and carracks to augment the smaller patrol fleets. Agriculture and commerce were at the Sultanate's forepoint, with wheat, rice and barley being amongst the largest produced crops. To prevent the Sultanate from ever getting hit by a major famine, the individual Amirs also engaged in the storage of food supplies, which would be utilized in case of famine or otherwise exported. Fishery was promoted as well as it helped in sustaining the fishery villages that were present along the coast, as well as the major port cities of Iskenderun, Basra, Gamrun and Trabzon. The Sultanate mined large amounts of silver and gold, to serve as currency as well as ornaments and jewellery. Importance was also given on the development of proper roads for the merchants utilizing the trade routes through the Sultanate, with all caravans being armed and protected with a small detachment of guards. Meanwhile, the construction of educational madrassahs continued throughout the Empire, with the sultan keen on spreading education and knowledge amongst the populace of the Sultanate. The Sultan sought to replicate the Islamic Golden Age that existed during the period of the Abbasids prior to the Mongol Invasion, and accordingly funded the teaching of Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, with Algebra, Geometry, Astronomy, Anatomy and Medicine being of prime importance. The lingua franca promoted throughout the Sultanate was also Persian, primarily due to the fact that Persian had existed as the language spoken by communities in the region for centuries and as such served as an excellent language for communication. The Sultanate continued to expand its territories into the Caucasus and the Persian Gulf islands. Sultan Zeeshan Beg was hailed as a hero for securing an alliance with Delhi and effectively protecting the Sultanates eastern border. This achievement, coupled with his earlier success at the Battle of Mosul practically turned him into a hero. By the end of the year, the Sultanate officially issued a declaration denouncing the Abbasid Caliphate of Egypt and declaring it a false Caliphate. In his speech to the people, the sultan declared that the last Caliphate died when Hulagu Khan sacked Baghdad and those in Egypt who had since claimed to be Caliphs were enemies of Islam. To end his speech, the Sultan announced the conversion of the royal family and the Persian nobility to Zaidism in rejection of all Abbasid authority.
    • Khedivate of Trabzon: Amir Alexios IV Komnenos continued his reign over the Sultanate. Acting as a vassal to the Gurkani Sultanate, he would only be answerable to the Gurkani Amir. The military and the navy were developed along the same lines as their Gurkani counterparts, with a major naval base constructed at the city of Trabzon, where the Trabzon fleet was also situated. Trabzoni authorities continue to work on the construction of a fleet at Trabzon, working side by side with Castilian authorities. The Trabzon Amir, Alexios IV Komnenos would continue to develop the trade route leading from his Black Sea port of Trabzon, connecting it to the city of Tabriz, hoping to make the spice trade routes much more advanced and efficient.
  • Runorqo Empire: The Empire continues constructions of fortifications and essentially castles throughout the Empire. Expansion to the south continues and canals, forts and roads are built as the Empire expands. Research into better ships and weaponry continues. The Royal Fleet continues working on installing heavy bows into its ships. Curious at the long forgotten invention of a sewage system, the Emperor orders research into the matter to expand the system in the major cities. The Empire makes a breakthrough on putting the Runorqo language to cloth, creating a system of hieroglyphics, which begins to spread throughout the Empire, allowing the archiving of stories of the Empire and its great culture and its history, sparking a new wave of citizens to seek out new knowledge, increasing the class of researchers in the Empire. Work on attaching bronze armor plating to a leather (lamma) garment creates the first chest plates, covering the torso and chest of a soldier, with a back plate being attached as well, leaving the sides vulnerable, but making the backs and front of a soldier better defended in combat. The Empire in a great ceremony is renamed to incorporate all of the people within it and its new complexion, renaming itself the Runorqo Empire, moving the capitol to the center of the Empire in Chu-Ica, halfway between Cuzco and Chan Chan.
  • Benin: Oba Isikhuan and members of the uzama visit the ruins of the University of Timbuktu, and inspect the charred remains of the complex. While the loss of the university is deemed a major blow to the morale of the empire, the building was poorly constructed by the Malians, and simply not fit for use by the time it was taken by the Bini warriors in the late-1410s. However, the Oba is pleased to know that the contents of the library are safe, having long been removed from the grounds nearly three decades ago by his father, Oba Ewuare, and carefully copied and translated across the empire. (Of course you would burn down the library after I mentioned its value. I knew this was going to happen nearly a month ago.) With the arrival of the printing press in Benin, the Oba invests heavily in the printing of the numerous copies of the scientific manuscripts stored across the empire, in addition to the extensively translated editions as well. The care Ewuare took in ensuring that copies were made of the Timbuktu Manuscripts thirty years ago has helped to mitigate the impact of the loss of Timbuktu's library. Though many documents were lost in the blaze, almost all of the relevant scientific manuscripts had been moved and copied long ago, with only Qurans and documents regarding Islamic mythology having been left on the grounds of the university. Almost all of the documents are in general circulation in the esuku and public schools of Benin, along with the original copies which are stored throughout the empire in secure locations as per the will of the previous Oba and his devotion to knowledge. The loss of the hospital is considered an even greater loss for many monks and nuns were killed during the blazes and the attempt to extinguish them. A fund to compensate the survivors of the fire is set up by the state, with nearly 2000 mina set aside for every survivor of the fire, the equivalent of nearly three years wages in the empire. With an interest in the sciences growing and the literate middle class of Benin expanding rapidly, the printing press has arrived just in time to be put to use in the empire. Within three months of the printing press blueprints arriving in Benin, five have been opened in Benin, with three in Edo and two more in Eko and Dakar. All five are owned by the Bini merchants who collectively purchased the schematics for the printing press, and all seek to begin printing books for the general public immediately. The first books to be published in Benin are the Kuzir religious text, the Iwe ti Iwo, and the Complete Record of the Great Edo NationElsewhere, the expansion into West Africa along the western coastline continues, with 10,000 kilometers of additional land taken by the Bini. Hundreds of thousands of ethnic Bini subjects move into the land, and the local residents are sold into slavery as they are captured by the warriors and settlers of Benin. The demographic shift in Benin has thus far been a success, with nearly 70% of the imperial population identifying as Bini. The indoctrination of the population via the use of religion, education, and infrastructure development to encourage people to adopt Bini culture and ideology, has been a stunning success for Benin. Also responsible are the crop surpluses granted by the land management of Benin and the highly produce rice and wheat fields in the empire, as well as the proper management of population growth in Benin. Trade with the Europeans continues, and expansion of the trade deals with the nations Benin is already trading with is approved of by the state. Kuzir missionaries in Rwanda continue to assist with the conversion of the local inhabitants in line with the King of Rwanda's own conversion and adoption of Kuzirism as the state religion. Assistance in development a local Kuzir clergy takes place once permission from the Oba and the Dari Council arrives in the kingdom after permission was requested by the missionaries. The use of the Congo River as a faster means of trade to Rwanda begins, with the Kuzir missionaries who had been operating in interior for several years now, using their knowledge of the region to support the Bini merchants sailing up the river to make it to the lands of Rwanda. Patronage of the abinibi societies continues with the full backing of Oba Isikhuan, after he heads to Nara from Timbuktu to tour the observatory of Dari Aisosa Nosariere. Aisosa states that he has been observing the stars and charting them for the Oba as a gift, a way of repaying him for his patronage for the Nara Observatory and support of the military in building it. The scientific research made by the Muslims into the use optics have been invaluable to Aisosa, in that it has allowed for the production of a tube of glasses that have greatly improved his ability to see the stars. Though not a practical device by any means, the seeing scope has allowed Aisosa to make out the planetary bodies with some level of detail (though not on the scale of Galileo)In other news, the discovery of coca in the long ago subjugated lands of the Akan, has led to the production of chocolate in Benin. Using the sugarcane grown in the empire as a sweetener, chocolate has become wildly popular in Benin.
  • Kingdom of Tondo: With the recent passing of the beloved monarch, Rajah Gambang, the nation mourns. Diyang Kalangitan assumes the throne, and takes no man to be her husband. Instead, she declares that on the eve of her death, the nobility of Tondo, Ma-I, and Pangasinan shall have an electorate regarding the successor of the united realms of Tondo. Kalangitan further consolidates her poweriscreetely assigning political opponents to far-flung provinces of Tondo or to Tondo's vassals of Ma-I and Pangasinan, or to colonization attempts in Palawan, Busuang and Samar. The government of Tondo can be roughly described as a Federal Monarchy, with each province ruled by a council with members proportionate to the province's population. Diyang Kalangitan invites the Huang of Pangasinan, his daughter and Ma-I's regency council, and officials from every province to draft something akin to an OTL constitution, namely, the Saligang Batas ng Tondo at Nasasakupan Nito (Constitution of the sovereign Kingdom of Tondo and all its holdings and possessions). As Maynila is one of the richest cities in South East Asia, it is now high-time to create a lasting legacy for it. A series of bridges and canals connecting the Pasig and Tagik (OTL Taguig) Rivers and all their tributaries to provide acquatic transportation, ease movement of goods, and simply build bridges above the waterways to ease the transportation of people in the Greater Tondo Province (OTL Metro Manila). To prevent problems of income inequality and unequal development, selected families in the capital are given incentives of food and gold to relocate to developing towns and cities in Cavite, Romblon and Samar. A road network has already connected Tondo Province to Cavite, and a series of roads from southeastern and southern Luzon to Pangasinan has already began construction. Tondo metallurgical capabilities increase as blast furnaces and ironforges are built all around the state. The port of Maynila is further expanded, with the navy increasing by 25 small ships and seven war junks. Trade with nearby states continue. Tondo continues expansion in Samae, Palawan and Busuanga. 2000 additional soldiers are trained. Kalangitan orders 400 ships to move to patrol the Visayas archipelago, mainly  to protect the trade routes, and secretly to intimidate Cebu. Expansion into Palawan, Negros and Samar continues.
    • Huangdom of Ma-I: With Tondo's grace, Ma-I settles the western part of Busuanga Island, and dedicates 100 citizens there. Li Han thrives as a cultural and financial capital of Ma-I, while Beigang immediately becomes the second port of Tondo, and conducts trade regularly with nearby nations.
    • Huangdom of Pangasinan: With Tondo's grace, Pangasinan expands into Central and Northern Luzon, attempting to assimilate the mountain and Igorot tribes located nearby to access the massive agricultural treasure in the Banaue Rice Terraces and the farmlands of Central Luzon. The administrative capital city, Pangasinan, begins construction of a road connecting it to Maynila. Blast furnace construction continues, and a small defense fleet of 15 ships is allotted by Tondo to Pangasinan. Pangasinense traders report sightings of small islands west of Luzon, and scouts are sent by Pangasinan to verify their claims. Pangasinan claims these islands west of Mainland Luzon, now named as the Gambang Islands in honor of Rajah Gambang  (OTL Scarborough Shoal)
  • Earldom of Desmond- In the recent years we have conquered half of Ireland (Desmond, MacCarthy, O'Sullivan, Ormond, Thomond, Leinster) as well as being in the possession of the Pale. We have significantly strengthened infrastructure will the road network and expansion of Cork completed last year. We now also have access to the printing press due to Cologne giving us the technology. However now, we decide that Ireland should be ready to unite into a Kingdom. To do this we send messengers all over Ireland to the Lords to accept us as High King of Eire.(Mod Response)((Skyboi, you're my only hope)) We go to the Hill of Tara and before the nobles and Lord who come, and James Fitzgerald the 6th Earl of Desmond is declared high king of Ireland by the Archbishop of Dublin. We continue to fortify our lands, as well as build up our military. We begin producing the printing machines and give one to the Cork Library. We begin to consider where we should build our capital which is either Cork or Dublin. We ask our liege lord England to give us experts, and specialists to help bring our technology up to standard as well as to help set up a navy, and a merchant fleet. (England Response).
    • Yes, sure. James Fitzgerald is crowned High King.
    • England: We send shipwrights to help start construction of a fleet.
  • Poland-Lithuania: King's Wladyslaw III lovely bride Birgitta of Sweden gaves birth to twins, a boy and a girl, the boy named Aleksander and the girl named Anastazja. Roman, son of the King's vassal Voivode Ilias Musat of Moldavia is in Poland, tutored by the King himself. Roman's brother Stephen arrives in the King's court to also be tutored by the King himself. We begin to spread disconent within the Grand Boyardom of Russia sensing that their collapse is inevitable, only trying to speed it up. Many notable scholars as per King's orders, begin to work in a Polish-Old Russian (West dialect)/Latin-Cyrillic alphabet hybrid language, while also simplifying this new language hybrid to make it easier to learn and more understandable, named Slavonic language, aimed to assimilate the people in our realm into one. Books are published on the Slavonic language and its learning is instituted. Old Byzantine motto "One Empire, one Church, one Law" is modified into "One Realm, one Language, one Church, one Law" and adopted as our motto. Expeled Jews from all of Europe are accepted in the realm. King Wladyslaw III issues a couple of edicts centered around education as an experiment. First, every community city, town and village is made mandatory to have a tutor, supported by nobility, that shall educate noble-born youth up to the age of 16. Second, the education is to be Polish-Slavic-centric, focusing upon the history of Poland, Ruthenia centered around White Ruthenia (and to a lesser extent, Roman Empire and ancient Greece), taught in Polish and Slavonic (and again, to a lesser extent, Latin and ancient Greek), and focusing on natural philosophy, astronomy, first aid, and art of Poles and the Ruthenians. The Jewish population is also expected from now on to learn and use the Slavonic language as an experiment at first before its used in a larger scale. Blueprints of the printing press similar to England's and Cologne's designs are designs and the mass use of the printing press is instituted as to advance literature and make publishing books in large quantities possible. We offer the Gurkani Sultanate an alliance. We attempt to ally with dissatisfied nobles in the Grand Boyardom of Russia and support them against the Grand Boyar and the republicans in general in whatever they attempt to do, offering them the full support of the Polish-Lithuanian realm without any strings attached. [MOD RESPONSE] ((Skyboi you're my only hope))
    • Poland: King Wladyslaw III focuses on consolidating the interior of the nation. King Wladyslaw III turns into Crown lands any fiefdoms that reverted to the Crown after their nobles owners died. A few more poor people that are also lucky enough to be friends of the King are nobilized and given extremely small fiefs along with an annual wage after vowing to always support the King and the Royal Dynasty, especially in the Sejm. In the economic realm, growing cottage industries begin to develop, such as iron working and wool trading in the burgeoning burghs, and animal husbandry continues to displace grain farming. To keep trade moving Jews are not persecuted and taxes on goods are lowered, now that the war is over, to make smuggling unprofitable. Krakow, Warsaw, Poznan, Bydgoszcz, Lublin, Lwow and Warszawa experiences a vast growth and increase in trade, attributed to a combination of lower taxes along with Jew money lending practices being de facto allowed and not persecuted.
    • Lithuania: Chernigov is further integrated into the realm. King Wladyslaw III focuses on consolidating the interior of the nation. King Wladyslaw III orders to initiate a gradual and peacefull process of resettlement of Kaunas,Vilnius,Trakai and Kernavė with highly motivated Polish settlers. In the economic realm, growing cottage industries begin to develop, such as iron working and wool trading in the burgeoning burghs, and animal husbandry continues to displace grain farming. To keep trade moving Jews are not persecuted and taxes on goods are lowered, now that the war is over, to make smuggling unprofitable. Kaunas, Vilnius, Trakai, Kernavė and Kiev experiences a vast growth and increase in trade, attributed to a combination of lower taxes along with Jew money lending practices being de facto allowed and not persecuted.
    • Moldavia: Voivode Ilias Musat focuses on consolidating the interior of the nation. In the economic realm, growing cottage industries begin to develop, such as iron working and wool trading in the burgeoning burghs, and animal husbandry continues to displace grain farming. To keep trade moving Jews are not persecuted and taxes on goods are lowered, now that the war is over, to make smuggling unprofitable. Suczawa experiences a vast growth and increase in trade, attributed to a combination of lower taxes along with Jew money lending practices being de facto allowed and not persecuted. A series of garrison forts are constructed along the border of the Ottoman Empire, the largest of the forts being named Fort Jagiello, and being quarter walled with duct trenches and heavy palisades defending the reinforced stone that lay behind it. Fort Jagiello being a new focal point to the Polish efforts to stop any Ottoman initiatives for expansion into the Polish realm as well as serving to honor and fulfill the 50 year NAP with the Ottoman Empire.
      • Gurkani Diplomacy: We accept the offer of an alliance.
      • The dissastisfied nobles accept the aid of the Commonwealth.
      • I am not a Commonwealth yet btw.~Bear
  • Cologne: The Archbishop of Cologne, Dietrich II, sends his wholehearted congratulations to the new pope along with a polite reminder of the Papal Bull requested six years ago, which would grant Ekkehard Stelzner and his heirs and successors royalties on the design of the printing press and essentially acknowledge the true creator of this wonderful new invention. Meanwhile, trade continues to recover and Dietrich II invests in the construction of barracks in Westphalen. Later that year, Dietrich II sends a letter to Brandenburg expressing his general support for a road network. Finally, Dietrich II notes the anti-Semitism within Cologne, Essen and Westphalen, and urges his people through a speech to be reasonable and merciful, and pay close attention to the truth of the matter rather than act recklessly.
    • Essen: Abbess Sophia sends her wholehearted thanks to Italy for the marvels and promises to share any intellectual developments with Italy in the future. The University of Essen begins to grow. Furthermore, Sophia supports Dietrich II’s sentiments on anti-Semitism but looks on with worry at the situation, wondering what else she can do. Meanwhile, Abbess Sophia sends a letter to Norway, asking for it to please send copies of any significant texts in its Scientiae Dae library to the University of Essen, in order to generally further the knowledge of the two nations. Finally, Abbess Sophia notes that Ferdinand of Austria is looking for a wife and offers one of her secular canonesses, Gretel von Moers-Gleichen, as his bride (secular canonesses do not take vows of chastity and can still marry). With this comes the promise of a successful trade partnership between the two nations.
    • Papal Diplomacy: Pope Callixtus III issues a brief bull called Ex Machina. It begins: "From the machine, great wonders of the written word have been produced, hitherto unknown of in learned society." The bull grants "Ekkehard Stelzner the true inventor of the Printing Press, all his heirs and successors, rights to a fee on use of his design." He also sends Stelzner a letter ennobling him, making him a papal Count. [Note: Before calling bs on the bull, remember that otl a Papal Bull divided the world between Spain and Portugal].
  • Papal States: Pope Callixtus III is horrified at the news of the anti-Semitic pogroms sweeping Christendom. In response, His Holiness promulgates Sicut Judaeis , a papal bull written in 1120 and re-issued several times since. The bull threatens excommunication to anyone who dares to force Jews to convert, harm them, take their property, disturb their festivals, or interfere with their synagogues and cemeteries. The Bull is sent to every diocese, where it shall be read out every Sunday for a month. Those who have trespassed against its strictures -which have remained in force since its last re-issuing in 1389- will have that month to publicly confess their wrongdoing and make amends by making restitution to the Jews for the damage they caused, including money as compensation for deaths. The Archbishop of Tolouse is summoned to appear before the Throne of Peter and explain his decidedly un-Christian behaviour in stirring up the trouble, which goes against both the Holy Word of God and the laws of the Supreme Pontiffs. A division of Papal guards is sent to guard the entry to the Jewish ghetto in Rome to protect the Roman Jewry from similar molestations. Old Callixtus is exhausted from this. The King of Poland is given the Apostolic Blessing and thanked for his nation's unwavering fidelity to the Holy See.
    • Polish Dip: We support Sicut Judaeis, and applauds His Most Holiness for his noble conduct. We humbly request that His Most Holiness request that he supports Brandenburg for HRE Emperor next elections and that he blesses a campaign to bring Russia back into the Catholic community. In return we humbly offer His Most Holiness a huge donation to the church (The Papal States), the support of our cardinals (if we have any ofc) in anything he wants, a guarantee for the Papal States independence from external threats and support in anything he wants our help with.
      • Papal Diplomacy: His Holiness blesses Poland's idea of a campaign to bring the Russians back into the fold of Mother Church, but advises that diplomatic means must be used before considering violence. He also secretly informs the Polish king that he will ensure that Brandenburg gets the support of the ecclesiastical electors.
        • Polish Dip: Informs his Most Holiness that he shall use any diplomatic means necessary to avoid spilling Christian blood and secretly thanks His Most Holiness for supporting Brandenburg as reuqested.
    • Archduke Albert V & II of Austria humbly asks his Holiness, in light of the glorious recognition of Albert as head of both House von Habsburg and newly recognized head of House von Wittelsbach, the sole incontestable Duke of all Bavaria, one of the oldest Duchies in the Holy Roman Empire with historical ties and dominion over the City of Salzburg and her lands, to return temporal power over the city and its lands to the rightful Duke of Bavaria, that being himself. The Lands of Bavaria are no longer squabbled over by rival princes and noblemen, peace and order is now restored under a united Duchy of All Bavaria. The Necessity that created a Bishopric with Temporal Power is no longer. It is time to return the lands to the rulers ordained to govern them by god himself during the very founding of the Holy Roman Empire: The Dukes of Bavaria, of which there is now only one.
      • Papal Diplomacy: Although he has some reservations, His Holiness allows the Archbishopric of Salzburg to be absorbed into the Hapsburg lands. However, only as a vassal, and only if the Archbishop is given equivalent dignity to one of the highest princes in the Hapsburg lands, if Church property and ancient rights are respected, and if the Abbey of Berchtesgaden is allowed to administer its traditional lands.
        • Albert, Archduke of Austria and Duke of All Bavaria, seeing as the monks in the Abbey need to feed themselves, and have resigned themselves to a life of asceticism, allows them to administer the lands themselves, as it is necessary for survival, sees no problems with this arrangement and promises that the Archbishop will be treated with the highest respect and dignity, declaring that the Archbishop of Salzberg will be the principal personal confessor of the Archdukes of Austria as well as given the right to speak before any other Vassal or Magistrate in Habsburg lands during councils and agrees that Priests, spiritual men ordained by the holy spirit, can only be justly and fairly judged by a conucil of their fellow priests or a bishop for any crimes.
  • Mogadishu: The nation's income continues to grow, both from increased tariffs and from the Royal Trade Fleet. Our manufacturers expand and make more money. We expand southward to connect our realm. 10,000 local tribesman and foreign settlers became citizens of our nation last year due to our policies of land reclamation and immigration attraction. We build cannons for our ships, just five each for our 20 largest ships. We continue to train our army. We continue spreading the silver denar in our lands, now backed by Mtwara Gold. We invade Malindi.
  • The King of Aragon is appalled by the behaviour of his subjects, and demands that the pogroms be stopped immediately. He attempts to calm the people, saying that the murder would not have been religiously motivated, and that whoever was responsible for the death of the young Frenchwoman would be brought to justice. He also says that assaulting and murdering Jews purely for the actions of one man does no good to Aragon and is not the way of God. The King also supports Sicut Judaeis, and applauds the pope for his noble conduct. The King also writes to his counterpart in Castile, in an attempt to persuade him to dismiss calls to re-establish the Inquisition, for it would do much harm to the Iberian people and introduce absolute chaos into the peninsula. More to come
  • Ahom Kingdom: The Ahom ask the Koch for surrender (MOD RESPONSE REQUESTED). I am still waiting for a response from last year. War will be conducted after response. Renovations are conducted in Rangpur, Chariadeo and Jorhat, and Garghaon is built up using labor from the Paik system.
  • Rwanda: We Invade Buganda, pushing forward and forward, sacking their villages, taking captives. Our Army is headed to capture Mengo. Life in Rwanda continues to improve though, with the Benin missionaries having connected trade routes to Rwanda and the Congo. Our Kuzirist religion in Rwanda is taking its stand. We are led by a Gu Alufa. We begin an Ijakad against Buganda, and will capture Mengo, the King, and his cronies.
  • Korea: Continues a naval buildup in case of Japanese aggression. The royal navy conducts more naval patrols to consolidate maritime borders and naval presence in the Eastern Sea. Any found Japanese ships in Korean territory are escorted back to Japan, after all their valuable possessions being seized first. Many obsolete or worn out ships are retired and scrapped for salvageable material to construct new ships, mainly war junks, turtleships, and panokseon. The Hanseong and Busan arsenals are expanded upon, being stocked with gunpowder weapons such as hand cannons, hwacha, multiple-rocket-launchers, and weaponized fireworks. A small naval fleet is dispatched to the northeast coasts of Manchuria and beyond to gain a better knowledge of the area. A trading post, known as Haesi, is established in the southern tip of Sakhalin, being populated with with a hundred colonists. Local Ainu and Nivh residents are forced to assimilate into the settlement's society, with those who resist being forcibly displaced from their homes. Korean expansion into Manchuria continues with vigour, though expansion is toward northeast and is centred on coastal areas. Mahayana Buddhism under the Yi sect, which incorporates Confucian values and Muist rites, becomes increasingly ingrained into Korean culture. Korea continues to experience affluence under the encouragement of mercantile activities and commerce. Wealthy yangban patronize the arts and literature. Buildings are upscaled in beauty and sophistication to reflect Korea's growing affluence, while more people, especially those in the yangban, chung-in, and sang-in castes partake in education.
  • Japan: With the increase in Korean aggression along trade routes, Japan increases its naval patrols. Ships are instructed to follow strict patrol routes, with multiple ships per patrol. Furthermore, patrols are instructed not to yield to Korean ships so long as they remain on-course. Returned ships are assumed to have been sailing too close to Korea, their captains reprimanded for provoking Korea. Crews are instructed not to give equipment to Korea. While these efforts should keep Japanese ships from coming into contact with Korean ships, Japan is now unable to patrol the sea of Japan for pirates. As such, pirate attacks on Korean vessels increase dramatically. While these pirates are not aligned with Japan in any way, the Ashikaga Shogunate is not afraid to begin funding these pirates to punish Korea should their aggression continue. The Shogun issues a decree to the Daimyo calling for peace with Korea, stating, "The situation with Korea is volatile. The war against them was the error of my father, not me. Their failure to see this is stunning, yet understandable. Be patient, my subjects and friends. Retribution on their part and on our part will come with time." In Japan, especially in the south due to increased tensions between Daimyo in Honshu and Kyushu, the military sees massive expansion. Kyoto and Edo see expansion. The Shogun proposes roads between the Daimyo along Honshu, with dedicated merchant routes being established between the islands. The colonies on Taiwan expand to the south while expansion in Hokkaido is in full swing to the north. The colony on Manchuria is instructed to expand to the west.
  • In Austria, Albert continues his plans. After forging foreign coins from gold and silver en masse, he orders them distributed across the nations of Wurtemberg, Ulm, Augsberg and  Kempten. However, they are not to be distributed to ordinary people. Through a network of agents, each further removed from Austrian Magistrates than the next, with nobody, save the five first councilors in on this plan, knowing the identity of their direct superior. Five degrees of separation are created between the Five councilors, and the Bandits that will receive the gold in the end. Bandits in those four nations, Ulm, Wurtemberg, Augsberg and Kempten are given the forged coins in secret in order to increase their base of operations and ravage the lands of those four counties. Each month, an anonymous donation suddenly appears at their base, from who, the bandits do not know, and even that man does not know the identity of the person giving him the chest to give the bandits, save that he and his family are to be well provided for, using the forged coins of course. Albert even plans to have some bandits run amok in Austrian territory in order to divert suspicion away from him. In the end, the system is designed to give maximum plausible deniability to the Archduke of Austria, and remove any direct connection to the Austrian Crown. After giving the Orders, Albert waits, and waits for news of havoc in the states affected. MODS PLEASE COMMENT ON THE SUCCESS OF THIS COVERT OP.Meanwhile, internally, Austria continues to fund its university and research. The Printing business is booming as more and more private individuals purchase printing lisences and the plans to a printing press from the Archducal crown. Albert Begins a crackdown on Bandits and sends two Archducal Guard Regiments to the Western Border of Austria Proper. In order to imrpove Administration of his nation, Albert embarks on a widespread centralization initiative, begining with the official incorporation of the Duchy of Styria and Counties of Tyrol and Gorizia into the administrative structures of the Archduchy of Austria. Styria still exists as a nominal Duchy, but its administration is locked into the administrative structure of Austria greater than before. The Duchy of Corinthia and Duchy Carniola into the Combined Duchy of Corinthia and Carniola. This Duchy, however, still remains more strongly tied to Austria than Bavaria, as Bavaria is able to theoretically maintain an independant ruling council, while Corinthia and Carniola is not. This reform Devides the Nation of Austria, effectively, into linguistic blocs. The Archduchy of Austria proper, speaking German, and the Duchy of Corinthia and Carniola, speaking Solvenian. This makes it easier to maintain relations with the locals assiness. Albert Also adopts a Union Flag, a combination of the red-white-red tricolour of Austria and the Blue checkerboard of Bavaria as his own personal standard, and modifies his personal coat of Arms and the Arms of House Habsburg-Wittelsbach to have the Bavarian Shield overlayed onto the traditional Austrian Arms to denote the Personal Union of the nations and his claims to the old Bavarian Lands.
  • I did an RNG, it failed.-Sky
  • King Olaf of Sweden: My children, Adele and Nils begin being more active and I hail my son as Jarl of Småland. Magnus shows inclination as an artist. Seeing Queen Emma irresponsible in her son's caretaking, I am taking tutelage over little Eric, and devote as many hours of my time to him. He seems happy around me, Isabella and the children. Chancellor Bengt adds Erik Bååt as Grand Admiral of the Swedish Navy. I continue a policy of expanding eastward in Finland, to reach the Russian border. The Squatter of Novgorod is given some lands near of Stockholm, is allowed to marry the lovely noble's daughter, Margaret Store. He is nobilized as Demetrius Sittapåhuk. My dear wife Isabella suffers a miscarriage and almost loses her life. We continue the building of Riksdag, the capital of the Kalmar Union, as well as the construction of Vasa in the Gulf of Bothnia. My cousin Björn marries Svenne Bååt, in a ceremony in Tre Kronor. The King of Poland, the brother-in-law of Björn, is invited. I set up large thrall markets in the south, to promote thrall catching in the North. I accept Mikkael's proposal for splitting the Northern lands and require a map. I also ask King Mikkael to lend us his court artist, Harald Adolphus, in order to paint several portraits of the family, including one of the entire family. 
    • Polish Dip: King Wladyslaw III attends the ceremony with a small entourage of some of his most trusted vassals and his royal guard. Roman Musat also attends the ceremony as he is taken along by the King to be tutored in the art of politics.
    • Norwegian Dip: I agree to allow the Royal Artist Harold Adolfus to come to Sweden to paint the portraits of the Swedish royal family.
    • King Olaf Addendum: The wedding proceeds without any incident. I meet King Wladyslaw III of Poland, a young, energetic man, with a mind for warfare, and my cousin-in-law. Besides him, he has a young man, who I learn is Roman Musat, heir to the Principality of Moldavia, a former Orthodox nation to the south. The youth is clearly intelligent and dilligent, and I tell King Wladyslaw that. However, I secretly pull King Wladyslaw in a chamber with my cousin Björn and present him with a plan of invading the Teutonic Order. I tell him that Brandenburg would be also involved in this war. This war is due to happen in three years. I ask him if the likes the idea. After King Wladyslaw leaves with his protege, I meet Harold Adolfus in his chamber, him clearly working on a painting. When I ask him what it is, he says it's a recreation of the meeting between me, King Wladyslaw and Roman Musat. He tells me he made a sketch of it during the wedding banquet, and asks me if he can finish it. I, of course, agree. Harold paints a painting of me, of my Queen with our three children and of the entire family. During this, I hear of Magnus sneaking into the artist's chamber. When me and Harold come inside, he has begun copying the portrait on display. We both wonder and behold at my son's talent.
    • King Wladyslaw III: Replies to King Olaf that because he is young he is eager for war to gain some glory and hopes that his dream of reconquering lost Polish lands to the Teutons finaly become a reality. Then he proceeds to discuss the war plans with King Olaf. He also urges the need to speed up preparations to allow this war to happen sooner than planned. Roman Musat which also joined us in designing the war plans, makes an intelligent comment as to that Prussia is part of the HRE and that the Emperor might wanna defend it from outside threats, so there should be some backup plans just in case. King Wladyslaw III then informs him that although he is smart he has much to learn yet, as there are backup plans in case Wenceslaus V (the HRE Emperor) tries to do something about this and that his position is a very unsecure one indeed, being surrounded by a sea of enemies, while most HRE princes are keen on replacing him with Johann of Brandenburg. When they finish the war plans, he proceeds to show King Olaf of his new design of an older hand cannon stating that its smaller yet effective design could be of some use to the upcoming war.
    • King Olaf IV: I do not agree with the plan to start the war sooner, but the remark of Roman Musat impresses me. The Holy Roman Empire is dealing with a lot of bad managing, and should this plan spiral into a larger war, we can call Burgundy in, our trusted ally. The hand cannon plan is accepted and will be produced within this year. 
  • Iroquois Confederacy: Not much of note happens this year. The shaman school on Hanowa sees an influx of children from the frontier who's parents sent them to try to give them a better life. Apenimon continues centralizing his people. He expands farming in OTL Pennsylvania/Susquehanna region, with the goal for farms there to provide 50% of all produce for the Confederacy. The demand for copper products increases and a rise in production of accessories, such as jewellery, emerges. Trade with our northern neighbors continues to flourish, as well as trade throughout the Inter-Coastal Waterway. We also continue to expand our capital Nowadaga, the trade town of Tiohero, and Canienga begins shifting its production to support the fort and its garrison. To keep friendly relations, we propose an annual lacrosse tournament between the Confederacy and the Cherokee.
  • In Italy, with a standardized Italian language now being used for the publication of all printed documents, King Niccolò Maria decides that literacy is to be made a national priority if everyone is to learn the new tongue. To this end, he issues a couple of edicts centered around education. First, every town and village is to have a tutor, supported by the local families and nobility, that shall educate all boys up to the age of ten, and then up to the age of 16 for noble-born youth (at which point they'd be eligible to attend one of the universities in Italy or throughout Europe). Second, the education is to be Italian-centric, meaning focusing upon the history of Italy and Rome (and to a lesser extent, Greece), taught in Italian and Latin (and again, to a lesser extent, Greek), and focusing on natural philosophy and art of Italians and the Romans. The navy has recovered from the defeat at Elba almost a decade ago, and continues to patrol throughout the Mediterranean, establishing itself as one of the greatest naval forces in the known world despite the nation's army focus. The lack of leadership in the School of Milan leads to a lot of creative and artistic works, including that of a sculpter named Donatello who vies with Giosuè for patronage by the King himself. Work on the Duomo and Biblioteca both continue in earnest. The pogroms are ended swiftly, with threats of violence against the anti-Semitic rioters. Niccolò Maria, while not personally fond of the Jews, realizes that the new pope will be taking a hardline and wishes to gain his favor.
  • In Naples, Mary Anjou sees to it that a set of printing presses are brought down from Italy to the city of Naples. At the same time, other advances made in the northern end of the peninsula continue to "trickle down" to Naples, such as urbanization in cities like Amalfi, Bari, Reggio Calabria, and Taranto. Furthermore, the cottage industries of textile-, glass-, and iron-making also begin to spread down to Naples. Italian settlements continue in Epirus and the Morea, along with the construction of new churches and conversion of mosques. In Croia, Stefan Thopia continues to plan the conquest of Berat and Dukagjini.
  • Majapahit Empire: It has been 11 years since the end of the Second Sacred War, and the Empire has begun to rebuild. An ageing Kuwat Wira rules the Empire and a 15 year old Wiwamba Yuda is expected to become the Gustimajahara's "next vessel". The Order of the Enlightened and the Divine Legion of Brahma are finally defeated, while the cultural integration of Borneo and the Celebes resumes. The Empire decides to ask the Tondo to expand trade relations and the reconstruction of Sumatra continues while Java's reconstruction + that of the former Sundaese Kingdom is completed. In the meantime, the Empire decides to turn its attention to India and expand into the rest of Papua, with at least 400 people landing in the coast of mainland Papua to establish a small trade port, with the initial spot being ~3 px on the map. As for India, Kuwat Wira decides to observe the situation there with increased concern, and thus begins planning for the possibility of striking at Pegu to prevent Bengali expansion into Southeast Asia. The planning expects an invasion to take place by 1450.
  • Kingdom of England: Our merchants conducting trade in Lisbon with Benin traders see an example of the hand cannon and we offer to trade knowledge on the creation of the printing press for knowledge of the hand cannon. Meanwhile back in England, King Richard IV notices the lack of a full time navy and commissions a number of shipwrights to construct a more permanent naval base at Portsmouth over the next two years with capacities for constructing purpose built warships and the ability to harbour them. While money continues to regularly flow into the education system creating a new group of educated people from merchants or landed gentry as more grammar schools and university places are on offer increasing the number of well educated.
    • Benin Diplomacy: Benin would be delighted to accept the offer provided by the English. We shall provide you with the hand cannon production information in exchange for the blueprints on the printing press you offered. Furthermore, we would like to trade chocolate in exchange for coal and iron from your nation.
    • English Dip: Yes, we will trade chocolate for coal and iron.
    • Polish Dip: England is offered hand cannon blueprints as a gesture of goodwill to strengthen relations between our great nations.
  • The Crown of Castile has recovered from the banking Crisis. The Royal Wedding is held this year, solidifiying the personal union between Castile and Aragon. The Order of the Red Lion has finished the deportation of Granadan Muslims, leaving the territory with a 97% Christian Majority. While Henry IV does not actively condone the publics response to the "Jewish Question", Henry sees little reason to stop it. The first printing press arrives in Castile, and with it brings new knowledge  and schooling systems. Naval expansion continues in an effort to maitain Castillian dominance of the Med.
    • Kingdom of Gibraltar: Continues its Christianization efforts. With a remaining 80,000 Berber Muslims in the territory, the kingdom should be able to finish the deportation efforts within seven more years. Castilian/Christian populace now numbers 60,000 within Gibraltar. With the economic crisis, little work is done on expanding the irrigation systems to reclaim the desert of Morocco. The Kingdom is ruled by Alfonso I of the House of Ivera.
    • Kingdom of Morocco: The Kingdom has a remaining Berber Muslim population of 830,000. With the slower settlement and deportation efforts, it is estimated to take another 30-50 years before. Morocco continues to be the meeting ground of Trade between Europe and the faraway Kuzir Empire, which makes the merchants of Fez quite rich. These merchants are somewhat spared from the economic crisis in Europe as they trade primarily with the Kuzirs, but many of them still feel the pressure with the economic collapse of Europe. The Kingdom is Ruled by Beatriz I, from a side branch of the House of Burgundy. Reclaim efforts are mostly funded by the wealthy merchants in Fez.
    • The Serene Republic of Liguria: With the end of the Neopolitian War, the republic of Liguria is established and ruled by the Spinola Family, ruled by Franseco Spinola. With the Rape of Genoa, a little under half of the population has fled the nation, resulting in a current population of 190,000. With many shipyards and docks damaged during the war, Franseco uses what little funds he has available to slowly restore the nation to its former glory, under Castilian dominance, of course.
    • The Duchy of Athens: Annexes all of the Greek territory that Castile inherited from the Neopolitian War, and Castile/Athens asks that Naxos end its invasion as the war is over. The nation has a population of 60,000 and although there is some discontent, any hope of rebellion is quashed by the lack of a good sponsor, the banking crisis and the destruction of the Republic of Genoa. Duke Antonio Acciaioli is allowed to remain in power and a marrige is set up between his son Antonio and the daughter of Castile, Isabella
  • Bahmanids: Ismail Shah sires a son, Muhammad Shah, who will one day sit on the thrones of both the Bahmanids and Delhi. 10,000 troops and 30 warships are sent to assist Mogadishu.

1448

The Squatter of Novgorod, now a Swedish noble, begins giving beer the attention it needs more often, leading to squatting escapades around the Swedish capital, the most iconic of which includes the squatting on people’s houses while they sleep and screaming "cyka blyad!"

The Aztec Empire secures its control over both the Xalapan and Tarascan Empires, absorbing the states in between.

Due to the extreme distance across the African continent, the Kuzirist peoples of Southern Africa begin merging their local polytheisms into the Kuzir philosophy, creating various sects.

Although Gunturism is once again united, minor doctrinal issues continue between the Sundanese and Javanese scholars.

A riot in Prague massacres a group of 300 Jews, and smaller pogroms occur in Krakow and Berlin.

An outraged peasant in Lisbon chucks mounds of mud at the King of Portugal (new mud event)

The pope is going to die next year. To avoid an extended interregnum like last time, I kindly ask that we begin the process of election this turn. Castile, Ragusa, France, Austria, Italy, Naples, and Aragon all have at least one vote. Thanks, ~Cal


  • Korea continues a naval build-up in face of Japanese aggression. The royal navy conducts more naval patrols to consolidate maritime borders, and to counterbalance the efforts of the Japanese to expand naval presence in the Eastern Sea. Ships are sent to beyond Sakhalin to explore the area (using Yakut maps), while maritime trade with China and Tondo increases. A small fleet of merchant vessels, occupied by two junks, is sent to Majapahit to establish formal relations. While monarch Yi Do praise Japanese efforts to avoid the trespassing into Korean territory, with the wokou pirates suddenly active, he suspects that the Japanese are funding their operations. Ships are stationed in coastal cities, namely, Busan, which is highly prone to wokou raids. Many obsolete or worn out naval vessels are retired and scrapped for salvageable material to construct new ships, mainly junks, gwaseon, and bigeodo. The Hanseong and Busan arsenals are expanded upon, being stocked with gunpowder weapons such as hand cannons, hwacha, multiple-rocket-launchers, and weaponized fireworks. Colonization efforts in the Haesi settlement in Sakhalin is doing well, with a hundred more colonists sent, which along with assimilate locals, make its population grow to three hundred people. A second settlement, known as Ilbonsi, is established on the eastern side of Shintoashima to check on Japanese expansion, with over two hundred colonists sent to the area. These two settlements separate from the Ryojeo province to make the Jilin province. Korean expansion into coastal Manchuria continues unchecked and with vigor, with local Manchus forced to assimilate into Korean society. With the Japanese efforts to expand their Manchurian colonies, Korea expands around them deter further expansion. Mahayana Buddhism under the Yi sect, which incorporates Confucian values and Muist rites, becomes increasingly ingrained into Korean culture. Korea continues to experience affluence under a meritocratic bureaucracy. Yi Do continues the encouragement of mercantile activities and commerce. Wealthy yangban patronize the arts and literature. Buildings are upscaled in beauty and sophistication to reflect Korea's growing affluence, while more people, especially those in the yangban, chung-in, and sang-in castes partake in education. A road is built, connecting Ilbonsi, Bukgyeong, Pyeongyang, Hanseong (and the adjacent cities of Gaeseong and Incheon), Gwangju, and Busan. Korea sends tribute to the Ming, with Yi Do doing prostrations before the Emperor.
  • Runorqo Empire: The Empire continues constructions of fortifications and essentially castles throughout the Empire. Expansion to the south continues and canals, forts and roads are built as the Empire expands. Research into better ships and weaponry continues. Work on expanding the sewage system across the Empire continues, helping to greatly decrease the rate of sickness and disease in the major cities. The population reaches seven million people. due to the baby boom and expansion to the south incorporating new peoples, and the army grows due to this in a similar fashion. The Royal Navy, a fleet of ships owned by the Emperor, begins to be armed by military men trained to deal with the sea and trained in archery, creating the first ship capable in a battle scenario that the Empire has ever seen. This leads to a faster reaction as ships along the coast can smash unrest from sea and land, making the Empire as stable as it has ever been.
  • The Gurkani Sultanate: Sultan Zeeshan Beg Mirza continued his rule over the Sultanate. The Gurkani population rose to about 26 million with the people flocking to cities like Herat, Isfahan, Gamrun, Qazvin, Bukhara, Tabriz and Iskenderun; primarily due to their strategic position in the spice trade. In regards to religion, the Sultanate promoted Shia Islam, and advocated conversion to the Zaidi sect from other Islamic sects, often engaging in forced conversions. The military was primarily composed of medium-to-heavy cavalry, composite bow, lance, mace, and sword. Heavy cavalrymen wore plated chain mail or metal lamellar armor, with their horses also wearing leather or metal lamellar barding. The infantry was equipped with daggers and swords to be utilised in close combat against the enemy and elephants as well as carts were used for the transportation of supplies. Cannons were constructed to serve as siege weaponry whilst hand cannons and rocket launchers were developed as gunpowder became increasingly popular. Naval bases were established at Iskenderun, Trabzon and Gamrun to establish the presence of the Gurkani fleet in the Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea and the Persian Gulf respectively, keen on controlling any piracy. The Gurkani Navy developed galleys and carracks to augment the smaller patrol fleets. Agriculture and commerce were at the Sultanate's forepoint, with wheat, rice and barley being amongst the largest produced crops. To prevent the Sultanate from ever getting hit by a major famine, the individual Amirs also engaged in the storage of food supplies, which would be utilized in case of famine or otherwise exported. Fishery was promoted as well as it helped in sustaining the fishery villages that were present along the coast, as well as the major port cities of Iskenderun, Basra, Gamrun, Kerch and Trabzon. The Sultanate mined large amounts of silver and gold, to serve as currency as well as ornaments and jewellery. Importance was also given on the development of proper roads for the merchants utilizing the trade routes through the Sultanate, with all caravans being armed and protected with a small detachment of guards. Meanwhile, the construction of educational madrassahs continued throughout the Empire, with the sultan keen on spreading education and knowledge amongst the populace of the Sultanate. The Sultan sought to replicate the Islamic Golden Age that existed during the period of the Abbasids prior to the Mongol Invasion, and accordingly funded the teaching of Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, with Algebra, Geometry, Astronomy, Anatomy and Medicine being of prime importance. The lingua franca promoted throughout the Sultanate was also Persian, primarily due to the fact that Persian had existed as the language spoken by communities in the region for centuries and as such served as an excellent language for communication. The Sultanate continued to expand its territories into the Caucasus and the Persian Gulf islands. Sultan Zeeshan Beg issues a decree, granting amnesty and refuge to the Jews being persecuted in Europe. With a sizeable Jewish community already living in Tabriz, Bukhara and Isfahan, the Jews of Europe are expected to easily assimilate into the society. Simultaneously, refuge and protection is also offered to the Shia Muslim community and they are requested to migrate to Persia. The leader of the Zaidi community of Yemen, Al Mansur An Nasir and his family are also offered refuge in Persia [MOD RESPONSE]. Meanwhile, work starts on the construction of a fortified crossing connecting both sides of the Kerch Straits.
    • Al Mansur An Nasir and his familiy agree to leave Abbasid Yemen and relocate to Zaidi Persia. -Rexmod
    • Khedivate of Trabzon: Amir Julius Megas Komnenos continued his reign over the Sultanate. Acting as a vassal to the Gurkani Sultanate, he would only be answerable to the Gurkani Amir. The military and the navy were developed along the same lines as their Gurkani counterparts, with a major naval base constructed at the city of Trabzon, where the Trabzon fleet was also situated. Trabzoni authorities continue to work on the construction of a fleet at Trabzon, working side by side with Castilian authorities. The Trabzon Amir, Julius Komnenos would continue to develop the trade route leading from his Black Sea port of Trabzon, connecting it to the city of Tabriz, hoping to make the spice trade routes much more advanced and efficient. The death of Alexios IV Komnenos in June results in his 12 year old son, Julius Komnenos ascending the throne with Marium Mirza being appointed as Queen Regent. In a suspicious turn of events however, the sudden death of Marium Mirza, possibly by poisoning eliminates any question of her regency and instead results in Julius's elder sister, Julia Komnenos being invited from Bukhara to serve as the Queen Regent. Many accuse Mahmud Mirza of having orchestrated the events so that his wife would obtain power whilst others blame the Greek Christians for murdering Marium so that a Muslim would not rule over Trabzon.
      • (OOC Bahmanids: The Bahmanids were a Shia dynasty already.)
  • Portugal: Walls of Lisbon and Evora continue to expand. Naval expansion continues. Jewish immigration from Castile begins, and they are encouraged to settle in Evora. The Cartaz and the Volta do Mar continues to be enforced, with ships refusing to pay having it forcibly brought upon them. Exploration down the African coast continues. The guy who threw mud is given monies. (Will try to expand- Busy AF currently.)
  • Kingdom of Ireland: Ireland is now united under one ruler, the former ruler of Desmond, and now High King of Ireland, though a vassal to England. We declare the capital of the Kingdom to be in Cork, and begin expanding after the remodelling of the city which had been finished in 1446. We begin constructing a Royal Palace to be finished in 1453, as well as expanding the road network across the country which will also be finished in 1453. We assemble a Parliament with a House of Commons for Knights of the Shire and Mayors as well as a House of Lords for nobility and Irish Chieftains. We continue to expand our education system as we build more school across the country. We also set up the University of Cork in Cork to fund scientific discovery. With English help, we expand our shipbuilding facilities and begin building a modern navy. We respond to Norway, and Denmark and offer to give them a steady supply of thralls in exchange for helping us expand the Bank of Desmond, and training our army and navy.
  • Will be out for three days vaiction - Bozi
  • Bahmanids: Ismail Shah congratulates Zeeshan Beg Mirza on his conversion to Shiaism, and praises his acceptance of the Shia and Jewish refugees. Ismail Shah decides to end another foolish conflict his father started: he will officially recognize Omani ownership of Gurjarat and assist them in hunting down the remaining rebels in exchange for an alliance. (MOD RESPONSE NEEDED)
    • Gurkani Diplomacy: Sultan Zeeshan Beg sends a letter to Ismail Shah, inviting him to Shia Islam and calling upon him to convert to Zaidism. Sultan Zeeshan states that this action will strengthen the alliance existing between Bahamani and the Gurkani, and will also aid Bahamani in breaking free from Abbasid influence.
    • (OOC Bahmanids: The Bahmanids were a Shia dynasty already.)
    • Oman agrees to an alliance. -scraw
  • Poland-Lithuania: King Wladyslaw III is greatly displeased with recent events against the Jews that may deprive the nation from its economic backbone. Roman and Stephen, sons of the King's vassal Voivode Ilias Musat of Moldavia are in Poland, tutored by the King himself. We begin to spread disconent within the Grand Boyardom of Russia sensing that their collapse is inevitable, only trying to speed it up. Many notable scholars as per King's orders, continue to work in the Slavonic language, to fix any grammatical and spelling errors. More books are published on the Slavonic language. Expeled Jews from all of Europe are allowed to seek refuge in the realm. Our guards in major cities act to prevent any pogroms. Some riots happen in Krakow, Kiev and Trakai but they are quickly dispensed by the guards. The guards are also instructed to arrest the rioters if possible rather than use any lethal force against the rioters. To appease the populace however a new law passes (Poland, West Russia, Moldova) reducing the rights of the Jewish people, gathering a considerable tax from them for their protection from the crowds and further restricting them with a curfew at night. We attempt to negotiate with pogrom and riot leaders to stop persecuting the Jews as they are vital to the economy. [MOD RESPONSE] ((Skyboi, you're my only hope!))
    • Poland: King Wladyslaw III focuses on consolidating the interior of the nation. King Wladyslaw III turns into Crown lands any fiefdoms that reverted to the Crown after their nobles owners died. Some more poor friends of the King are nobilized and given extremely small fiefs along with an annual wage after vowing to always support the King and the Royal Dynasty, especially in the Sejm. In the economic realm, growing cottage industries begin to develop, such as iron working and wool trading in the burgeoning burghs, and animal husbandry continues to displace grain farming. To keep trade moving, taxes on goods are lowered, now that the war is over, to make smuggling unprofitable. Krakow, Warsaw, Poznan, Bydgoszcz, Lublin, Lwow and Warszawa experiences a vast growth and increase in trade, attributed to a combination of lower taxes along with Jew money lending practices being de facto allowed and not persecuted.
    • Lithuania: Chernigov is further integrated into the realm. King Wladyslaw III focuses on consolidating the interior of the nation. King Wladyslaw III orders to initiate a gradual and peacefull process of resettlement of Kaunas, Vilnius, Trakai and Kernavė with highly motivated Polish settlers. In the economic realm, growing cottage industries begin to develop, such as iron working and wool trading in the burgeoning burghs, and animal husbandry continues to displace grain farming. To keep trade moving, taxes on goods are lowered, now that the war is over, to make smuggling unprofitable. Kaunas, Vilnius, Trakai, Kernavė, Kiev, Minsk and Chernigov experiences a vast growth and increase in trade, attributed to a combination of lower taxes along with Jew money lending practices being de facto allowed and not persecuted.
    • Moldavia: Voivode Ilias Musat focuses on consolidating the interior of the nation. In the economic realm, growing cottage industries begin to develop, such as iron working and wool trading in the burgeoning burghs, and animal husbandry continues to displace grain farming. To keep trade moving, taxes on goods are lowered, now that the war is over, to make smuggling unprofitable. Suczawa experiences a vast growth and increase in trade, attributed to a combination of lower taxes along with Jew money lending practices being de facto allowed and not persecuted. A series of garrison forts are constructed along the border of the Ottoman Empire, the largest of the forts being named Fort Jagiello, and being quarter walled with duct trenches and heavy palisades defending the reinforced stone that lay behind it. Fort Jagiello being a new focal point to the Polish efforts to stop any Ottoman initiatives for expansion into the Polish realm as well as serving to honor and fulfill the 50 year NAP with the Ottoman Empire.
    • There are still some tensions but they largely stop persecuting Jews on the same level.
  • Majapahit Empire: With the Empire continuing construction of its infrastructure, the initial trade port in mainland Papua is expanded to a population of 480, though a plague reduces the population to at least 345. Regardless, the new trade port is given a name: Kesuburan (which means "fertility" in Javanese). Cultural integration of Borneo and the Celebes continues, with annexation planned by 1455. Meanwhile, the preparations for Pegu's conquest continue, and a request is sent to Khmer in secret to assist in the conquest of Pegu.
  • The King of Aragon is relieved and pleased to hear that the pogroms have largely stopped. He now turns his attention to the continuing development of the military, and receives reports that the overhaul of the Royal Armada is almost complete, and that the Armada is now one of the most technologically advanced navies in the region. Our defence capabilities are regularly inspected to ensure that we can counter any threat to our sovereignty. Meanwhile, the country has completely recovered from the economic crisis, and the Royal Bank begins once again, albeit tentatively, to expand. The Royal Bank reopens its branch in Genoa. More to come
  • Cologne: Archbishop Dietrich II of Cologne is pleased by His Holiness’s prompt response and proudly informs Ekkehard Stelzner that his works will be protected in his name. Stelzner is also incredibly honoured to be named a papal count. Further, Dietrich II makes a speech to the people of Cologne, Westphalen and Essen, explaining what the pope has decreed. Finally, Dietrich II makes it clear that he supports Sicut Judaeis and that the violence against Jews should stop. His Holiness’s Papal Bull is read out as required, and the Court of Discipline begins to look into any un-Christian behaviour of this sort among the clergy in wider Cologne and Essen. The barracks in Westphalen begin construction, set to be completed by the end of the next year.
    • Essen: Abbess Sophia reiterates her request to Norway to share significant Scientae Dae texts with the University of Essen (see 1447), and reiterates her offer to Austria of a bride for Ferdinand (also see 1447). Essen also supports Sicut Judaeis, as Abbess Sophia stands united with Dietrich II as always. Thanks to the few additional texts sent by Italy, a small number of academics from universities other than the University of Cologne join the University of Essen.
    • Polish-Lithuanian Dip: We secretly ask Cologne to support our ally Brandenburg in the next HRE elections, informing them that this is also His Most Holiness (the pope's) will, in return we offer to guarantee Cologne's independence (from any expanding powers), as well as give a substantial donation to Cologne's Archbishopric.
  • Duchy of Thuringen: The city guard continues to defend the capital city of Erfurt. Our military grows by adding more recruits each year. We continue to trade again with our neighboring states. Farming goes well in our nation this year. The healthy population continues to increase by 3% each year. Karsten's improvement in the training area is continuing to show off. Our economy continues to try to rebuild itself from the collapse of 1439. We continue to invest in Ekehard's printing press, thinking it will help boost our economy of our nation back to what it used to be in 1438 before the collapse.
    • 3% population growth (assuming this is without substantial immigration) had not happened until the twentieeth century.'
  • Mogadishu: The nation's income continues to grow, both from increased tariffs and from the Royal Trade Fleet. Our manufacturers expand and make more money. We expand southward to connect our realm. 10,000 local tribesman and foreign settlers became citizens of our nation last year due to our policies of land reclamation and immigration attraction. We build cannons for our ships, just five each for our 20 largest ships. We continue to train our army. We continue spreading the silver denar in our lands, now backed by Mtwara Gold. With victory over Malindi, we celebrate as Sultan Ali prepares for an event that would happen after a few years.
  • Ahom Kingdom: I ASK AGAIN FOR A MOD RESPONSE TO MY OFFER OF PEACE TO KOCH. The Ahom army prepares to attack the Koch if they do not accept the offer of peace.
  • Koch says OK. -Scraw
  • Ethiopia: The settlements on the Nile continue to send high quality food thanks to the more fertile soil of the Nile. They also expand into more sizable communities, with more food surplus we encourage population growth, even offering more food to larger families. Zera encourages sheep farms in the lowland to form an clothing industry for the higher class. We are glad for the trade with Benin making wealth for both our nations.
    • Benin Diplomacy: Merchants from Benin would be delighted to trade with the people of Ethiopia.
  • Italy: The arts and natural philosophy continue to flourish under King Niccolò Maria Visconti. His efforts to standardize education across the Kingdom is met with some opposition from families who rely upon their youth for labor, so the King begins to revisit the educational plans he outlined. Now, the minimum age of education is eight, with the option for an apprenticeship being offered for the next eight to ten years. The artisans, worksmen and guildsmen all appreciate this wise reform, and the mercantilists at the University of Florence believe it will greatly aid the Italian economy. An ironworker by the name of Enrico Fenini begins to experiment with more efficient methods of casting iron.
  • Naples: Technology and resources come from the north as feudalism continues to wane (while larger cities see more immigration). Queen Mary Anjou sees to it that a set of printing presses are brought down from Italy to the city of Naples. Industry continues to spread into Naples, and Italian settlements continue in Epirus and the Morea, along with the construction of new churches and conversion of mosques. In Croia, Stefan Thopia continues to plan the conquest of Albania, starting with Berat. He seeks the Queen's permission to go to war eventually, which is granted once the manpower exhaustion from the Balkan War wears off.
  • Benin: The infrastructure scheme of Oba Isikhuan has come to an end. With the development of roads, canals, hospitals, and schools across the western regions of the empire, Isikhuan has declared his construction project a success. With the loss of the University of Timbuktu and its local hospital, however, the Oba views his work undone in that city, and has set aside government funding to rebuilding that city entirely to be a "garden in the desert", one that his father would have been proud of as a student of that city. The work of Dari Aisosa Nosariere in astronomy continues with many gains in the field by his efforts. His desire to learn of the stars from his observatory in Nara has attracted many young Kuzir seeking to enhance their understanding of astronomy, and travel to the city to study with Aisosa. The missionary efforts of the Kuzir faith continues, though as the infiltration of polytheistic ideologies into the newly converted outside of Benin takes place, several Dari depart from Benin to directly deal with the new faithful, and teach them of the true nature of God. They kindly help them to understand that Oghodua is a single entity, and that their other gods are not part of the faith they have taken up. Through kind words and great patience, the Kuzir priests successfully help to break the bonds between the newly converted and the old gods once and far all. As trade with the rest of the world continues to increase, Benin finds need to expand its naval capabilities to protect its trade routes. To that end, ten akakan and twenty-five oke are built for the navy, with plans for fifteen more akakan underway. The navy is divided into two fleets, the Western Fleet based out of the port of Dakar, and the Southern Fleet based out of the port of Eko. The Western Fleet shall have 55 akakan, 90 oke, and 200 epeepe given the location of the foreign ships in the region and the trade routes going from Dakar to Europe and Asia. The Southern Fleet shall have 20 akakan, 45 oke and 100 epeepe, mostly due to the lack of enemies in the region and the safety for traders sailing south around the Cape of Good Hope. Expansion into the uncivilized West African lands continues, with 10,000 kilometers settled by the Bini and the native peoples either enslaved and sold off to foreigners, or killed off if they resist the Bini settlers and warriors. Bini merchants in East Africa continue to expand their trading networks in the region, this time looking to get to India where they hear of great wealth and resources that would sell for a fine price back in Benin. With the arrival of the printing press in Benin from England, a revolution in literature and technology has begun. The Oba invests heavily in the printing of the numerous copies of the scientific manuscripts stored across the empire, in addition to the extensively translated editions as well. (This time I imported it from England through Lisbon, where I have merchants with Oct's permission.) Within three months of the printing press blueprints arriving in Benin, five have been opened in Benin, with three in Edo and two more in Eko and Dakar. All five are owned by the Bini merchants who collectively purchased the schematics for the printing press, and all seek to begin printing books for the general public immediately. The first books to be published in Benin are the Kuzir religious text, the Iwe ti Iwo, and the Complete Record of the Great Edo Nation.
  • Rwanda: We annex most of the territory of Buganda. The Grand Victory has happened, and Kuzir priests enter the conquered realm. We build roads and continue to try to build stone buildings.
    • Benin Diplomacy: Having gotten word of the conquest by Rwanda from Bini merchants, the Oba of Benin sends a gift of gold and silver to the King of Rwanda as a sign of his solidarity with the Kuzir monarchy on the other side of the continent.
  • King Olaf of Sweden: My children, Adele and Nils begin being more active and I hail my son as Jarl of Småland. Magnus shows inclination as an artist. Seeing Queen Emma irresponsible in her son's caretaking, I am taking tutelage over little Eric, and devote as many hours of my time to him. He seems happy around me, Isabella and the children. He sees me as his loving uncle, and we speak a lot in Swedish, Danish and Latin. I have begun instructing him in state-emergency affairs. Alas, he is very dependent on me and has his attacks of visions, which leaves me questioning if he may ot be possessed. I continue a policy of expanding eastward in Finland, to reach the Russian border. To secure Sittapåhuk's allegiance, I secretly give order to craft an expensive armor, which is supposed to look like the legendary Adi Das. However, the blacksmith writes Abi Bas instead. I present it to Demetrius, in hopes of him not noticing the issue. My cousin Eric Vasa marries Helga Lüneborg, the daughter and only child of a wealthy Gutnish merchant, in a ceremony in the Visby Cathedral. I set up large thrall markets in the south, to promote thrall catching in the North. I accept Mikkael's proposal for splitting the Northern lands and require a map. My cousin, Kettil Vasa, is made Archbishop of Uppsala after the previous Archbishop's death. Björn has a son named Karl born to him, and my wife, Isabella, bears me a second daughter, called Kristina for her grandfather. I receive word from my father, he is well on the hunting estates on Öland. 
  • Iroquois Confederacy: With the desire for copper rising, Chief Apenimon decrees that any copper miner is allowed to keep 25% of all copper they find. Petroleum production is expanded, along with this, lamps are improved from simple clay bowls to more ornate and larger pieces. More and more copper craftsmen/women emerge, their products becoming a major component to the Iroquois trade network. With Tiohero finally complete, trade heading west booms. We begin sending barges loaded with vases of oil west. Our focus though remains on improving our urban centers and centralizing our religion. A defined "state" begins to emerge, based in Nowadaga. It is both the religious epicenter for the Iroquois as well as the center for all government, with 75% of its inhabitants being either holy people or regional leaders. Agriculture continues to expand in Susquehanna, with 10% of all bean, squash, and corn production coming from the region. In Cayuga, the fort is completed and regular training exercises are done under the supervision of War-chief Chogan, who recently returned from assisting the Cherokee in reforming their armies.      
  • King of England: We offer to James II of Scotland the hand of the King's daughter Anne of York creating friendliness. ((Skyboi, you're my only hope.))While with the Jewish problem we are having due to all the Pogroms, Richard IV decrees that Jews be banned from the main parts of town's and must live in their own Jewish quarter of a town away from everyone else and they are not allowed in the main city after dark. We continue to put funding for expanding our growing education system with universities and grammar schools established. At Portsmouth more work from last year is continued upon a shipyards with the works expected to be finished next year and the expectation that five ships can be worked upon at once with them being churned out every four months with the design of the shipyards using the latest Venitean and Genoan techniques. Trade with Benin goes well as luxury goods are brought in while industry works to mine the raw materials for them-
  • James says "ayy lmao noice gurl u got there, imma marry her sure."-Sky
  • Papal States: Angered that anti-Jewish pogroms are continuing, Pope Callixtus III re-releases another papal bull: Etsi Judaeorum, which demands that Jews in Christian lands be treated the way Christians would with to be treated in heathen lands. When news comes in of the massive deadly riot in Prague, the pope places the entire city, and the Emperor, under interdict for daring to disregard a direct papal bull. The Bishop of Tolouse arrives and is publicly berated from the throne by Callixtus, afterward being stripped of his benefices and sent to a monastery. In other news, His Holiness recognises the new state of Ireland. 
  • Croatia and Ragusa use the trade to expand their economies.
  • In Austria, Albert is furious. Not only did his plan for bandits not work, he lost a good chunk of gold. Ten Thousand troops are raised and moved to Further Austria for purposes of "security from bandits". Albert then demands that Wurttemberg submit and become a vassal of the Austrian Crown, placing a majority of the troops on the border. MOD RESPONSE PLEASE. Meanwhile, Albert orders that the Papal Bulls issued in regards to the Jews are printed and distributed all over habsburg lands. He personally decides to read it aloud to a crown in Vienna. Due to the convenience of keeping court Jews as Lords Castellan of Austria, Albert does not want the Jews frightened away from his lands. Albert expresses private concerns that His father-in-law is moving away from the one true church of god by allowing pogroms. His agents seed anti-bohemian sentiment in further countries.
  • Brandenburg-Luxembourg: Tensions on the Teuton border remain strong as Berlin continues to view the Monastic state with suspisions, specialy given their intolerance toward heretics and Brandenburg's conciliatory stance toward the Hussites. Teutonic Merchants are slowly muscled out of trade oppurtunities by Brandenburgian oficials and Brandenburgian merchants who prefer doing business with Burgundian, Cologne and Scandinavian Merchants due to friendlier relations with those states. Military reforms continue to as the training of the new force remains on course and the size of the force is standing at 14,000 with another 4000 being trained. Training of gunmen and crossbowmen proves far easier and less costly then training bowmen over the course of a lifetime and as such more reliance on crossbowmen and Arquebusiers lines grows, and the infantry formed mainly of pikemen and the slow but progressive implementation of Plate armor is introduced to better defend against the new forms of weaponry. Hussite siege and defense tactics with cannons and weagons continues to be formally introduced to the new model forces as cannons are increased in numbers though most of the artillery and siege equipment remains catapults and ballestas. The number of heavy cavalry used is heavily reduced as lighter cavalry is introduced in larger numbers to take advantage of the mobility provided by wagons. The printing press starts to make inroads in Brandenburg and Luxembourg as the device proves its usefulness for standardizing publication and the press industry starts to grow because of this. WIth the growth of trade and business in Luxembourg and in Brandenburg small guilds of merchants begin setting up local banking cooperatives learning from the mistakes of the banking collapse of the 1430s in the hre ultimately though this is still very small as many are hesitant to trust the banking system again but the scheme shows potential. Metal smithing guilds and artisan guilds continue to grow in large amounts as more people join trades. The intellectual circles of Stettin, Berlin and Luxembourg continue to flourish and development of alchemy divisions and natural sciences grow as the interest in these areas grows. Heinrich oficially deplores the pogroms but is unable to do much other then issue decrees that forbid the persecution of Jews but state oficials do little to enforce them except in Luxembourg where the Jews are valued for their skills as merchants and artisans making a small safe haven within Heinrich's domains for the Jews. Expansion of the new road system begins in coordination with the recent upsurge in trade with the central German states and with the Rhineland. In secret Heinrich sends envoiys to Poland and Sweden as they both have ongoing disputes with the teutons and offers an alliance to eventually dispose of the monastic order or to at least dismantle the thrteat they present.
    • Polish-Lithuanian Dip: We accept the alliance offer.
  • Bohemia: Wenceslaus V continues to influence electors. The Bank of Prague continues to grow. Wenceslaus V officially condemns the persecution of Jews, and issues a decree declaring anyone who commits violence against the Jews shall be tried in court. Wenceslaus' children continue schooling. Heidrich I begins looking for a wife. We demand for a final time the return of unlawful lands by Thuringia. Wenceslaus V continues to be involved in the innerworkings of the Empire, planning something relatively large. (See the Holy Roman page in a few turns for updates).

1449

The squatter of Novgorod, a Swedish noble now, with a child on its way, seems to receive the armour Adi Das from the Swedish king. But… for some reason he feel anxious and depressed over the course of the year, somehow lacking any enthusiasm and he also stops giving beer the attention it needs.

In the newly occupied region of Buganda, an old hermit and itinerant preacher begins advocating the end of pagan idolotry and the worship of the one God Olorun, while also advocating the same philosophy and doctrines as the Kuzirist scholars. He is considered a general nuisance by both the traditional African Priests and the Kuzirist missionaries.

A new theologic debate begins in Majapahit Empire. Some scholars, sympathizing with the Sundanese branch, advocates a form of salvation in Heaven by following the teachings of Guntur, while the Javanese scholars maintains the old system of Karma and reincarnation. This is complicated by the Sundanese scholars pointing to many texts supposedly written by Guntur supporting their position, which the Javanese denounce as non canonical.

Delhi conquers Bastai and Kashmir.


  • Duchy of Burgundy: naval development continues. During fleet maneuvers in the Zuiderzee, off the Geulders coast, a message is sent to Arnold, Duke of Geulders, suggesting that he recognize Philip's claim to Geulders and abdicate in his favor. In return for the peaceful abdication, Arnold will retain a comital title, and be allowed to act as a representative for Geulders ((Save me, Skyboi. You're my only hope.)). Duke Philip is pleased with the the Brandenburgian Princess Annora, and makes preparations to receive her. As well, he assures Brandenburg that their alliance will be honored in the event of war.
    • Geulders agrees -Nate
  • Korea, galvanized by Japanese aggression, continues the strengthening of its royal navy. Many obsolete or worn out naval vessels are retired and scrapped for salvageable material to construct new ships, mainly bigeodo, gwaseon, and junks. Artillery, mainly Korean cannons and hwacha, continues to be developed and given to naval vessels to give them an edge against rival ships. Patrols are conducted in neighbouring waters to consolidate Korean naval presence, and to watch out for Japanese naval vessels. Korea continues expansion, with a small trading post called Seotaeman being established on the northwest fringes of Taiwan, intended to deter the Japanese from further expansion into said island. A hundred colonists, as well as materials, are shipped to the colony. The Haesi colony is expanded south, into Hokkaido. The colonists convince the Ainu to assimilate under Korean culture, and to become part of the colony. Korea also continues expansion northeast into the Manchu coast, forcefully assimilating local ethnic groups along the way. A group of emissaries are sent to Tondo to convince the Lakandula to remove trading restrictions, and to discuss our mutual fear of Japanese aggression. Mahayana Buddhism under the Yi sect, which fuses Confucian doctrines and Muist rites, becomes increasingly ingrained into Korean culture. Korea continues to experience affluence under a meritocratic bureaucracy. Yi Do continues the encouragement of mercantile activities and commerce. Wealthy yangban patronize the arts and literature. Buildings are upscaled in beauty and sophistication to reflect Korea's growing affluence, while more people, especially those in the yangban, chung-in, and sang-in castes, choose partake in education. The use of the Nakdeong and Han River canals are privatized, and are given to merchant families that are close with the government.
  • The Gurkani Sultanate: Sultan Zeeshan Beg Mirza continued his rule over the Sultanate. The Gurkani population rose to about 26 million with the people flocking to cities like Herat, Isfahan, Gamrun, Qazvin, Bukhara, Tabriz and Iskenderun; primarily due to their strategic position in the spice trade. In regards to religion, the Sultanate promoted Shia Islam, and advocated conversion to the Zaidi sect from other Islamic sects, often engaging in forced conversions. The military was primarily composed of medium-to-heavy cavalry, composite bow, lance, mace, and sword. Heavy cavalrymen wore plated chain mail or metal lamellar armor, with their horses also wearing leather or metal lamellar barding. The infantry was equipped with daggers and swords to be utilised in close combat against the enemy and elephants as well as carts were used for the transportation of supplies. Cannons were constructed to serve as siege weaponry whilst hand cannons and rocket launchers were developed as gunpowder became increasingly popular. Naval bases were established at Iskenderun, Trabzon and Gamrun to establish the presence of the Gurkani fleet in the Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea and the Persian Gulf respectively, keen on controlling any piracy. The Gurkani Navy developed galleys and carracks to augment the smaller patrol fleets. Agriculture and commerce were at the Sultanate's forepoint, with wheat, rice and barley being amongst the largest produced crops. To prevent the Sultanate from ever getting hit by a major famine, the individual Amirs also engaged in the storage of food supplies, which would be utilized in case of famine or otherwise exported. Fishery was promoted as well as it helped in sustaining the fishery villages that were present along the coast, as well as the major port cities of Iskenderun, Basra, Gamrun, Kerch and Trabzon. Importance was also given on the development of proper roads for the merchants utilizing the trade routes through the Sultanate, with all caravans being armed and protected with a small detachment of guards. Meanwhile, the construction of educational madrassahs continued throughout the Empire, with the sultan keen on spreading education and knowledge amongst the populace of the Sultanate. The Sultan sought to replicate the Islamic Golden Age that existed during the period of the Abbasids prior to the Mongol Invasion, and accordingly funded the teaching of Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, with Algebra, Geometry, Astronomy, Anatomy and Medicine being of prime importance. The lingua franca promoted throughout the Sultanate was also Persian, primarily due to the fact that Persian had existed as the language spoken by communities in the region for centuries and as such served as an excellent language for communication. The Sultanate continued to expand its territories into the Caucasus and the Persian Gulf islands. With the arrival of Al Mansur An Nasir, the Zaidi community of Persia took to the streets in celebration. Meanwhile, under intense pressure from the Zaidi clergy, the Sultan issued a royal decree, granting Al Mansur An Nasir the title of Caliph. This action would practically create a Caliphate in Persia rivalling that of Egypt, and would result in Persia effectively becoming the heartland of Shia Islam. The aim of the royal decree would be to unite the global Shia community under the leadership of Al Mansur and the Gurkani, and to nullify any and all religious influence that the Abbasids held over Persia. Meanwhile, work continued on the construction of a fortified crossing connecting both sides of the Kerch Straits.
    • Khedivate of Trabzon: Amir Julius Megas Komnenos continued his reign over the Sultanate. Acting as a vassal to the Gurkani Sultanate, he would only be answerable to the Gurkani Amir. The military and the navy were developed along the same lines as their Gurkani counterparts, with a major naval base constructed at the city of Trabzon, where the Trabzon fleet was also situated. Trabzoni authorities continue to work on the construction of a fleet at Trabzon, working side by side with Castilian authorities. The Trabzon Amir, Julius Komnenos would continue to develop the trade route leading from his Black Sea port of Trabzon, connecting it to the city of Tabriz, hoping to make the spice trade routes much more advanced and efficient.
  • Benin: Hearing of the preaching hermit of Buganda, Dari Sadika Abubakar travels to the region to speak with the hermit directly. Fascinated by his teachings and appealing to the sharp mind and logic of the elderly hermit, Sadika asks that old man consider his argument that his teachings are incomplete. After several hours of discussion and drinking, Sadika is able to explain that Kuzirism mirrors many of the teachings that the hermit preaches, and he invites him to join him in Benin. (MOD RESPONSE NEEDED) In Edo, the old hermit and Sadika stand before the Dari Council, where Sadika argues on the preacher's merits and states that he was simply misinformed about the word he spoke to his people. After hearing the old man, the council agrees that the hermit was indeed wise but simply misguided, and after teaching him of the truths of his word and the clarity of the works of Kuzirism, the hermit converts to Kuzirism, viewing it as the completed version of his teachings. After meeting with the Oba who lauds the old man's desire to preach the word of Kuzirism, the hermit is inducted into the Oluko priesthood of Kuzirism, and given the robes of a Dari as well as the Iwe ti Iwo, and taken a number of Kuzir priests with him, is returned to Buganda to begin preaching the word of Kuzirism to his people, with a more complete understanding of his faith. Upon returning to Buganda, the Kuzir missionaries are informed by Dari Council of the hermit's new role, and told to welcome him with open arms. Informed of the developments, the missionaries accept the will of the council. They are reminded that as Kuzir, it is their responsibility to enlighten the misguided such as the old hermit, and to educate them in the ways of Kuzirism as it is, appealing to logic and reason to change hearts and minds. Delighted to have had the matter cleared up, return to the important work of preaching and teaching in Rwanda and Buganda. After hearing of Mogadishu's expansion into Sofala's territory, at the urging of the Bini merchant caste, the Oba immediately sends troops to protect the city of conquest. Too important is that city as a nexus for Bini trade power in the region to be lost to an Islamic state which may seek to expel the Kuzir merchants from the region, and harm Benin's trade revenue from the Indian Ocean. The Southern Fleet and 12,500 troops are dispatched to that area to protect Sofala and repulse the Islamic invaders. Benin expands by 10,000 kilometers into West Africa, exploiting the resources of the region as they go. The natives are enslaved and sold off to foreigners, and the Bini people replace them as the dominate group in the region. With the expansion of trade in East Africa, the merchants of Benin begin funding a major expedition to India for the following year, seeking to access the Indian markets directly and increase their profit margins back home. In Nara, Dari Aisosa develops the thesis that the sun may not revolve around the earth, but the earth around the sun. He states that he wishes to further explore the topic in detail before he commits to the idea as a solid scientific fact. His thesis prompts fellow astronomers in the clergy to construct additional observatories throughout the empire, so that they may themselves add to this knowledge in their own manner. With the patronage of the Oba, the printing presses in Benin are expanded to other major cities, where scientific books, religious texts, and gazettes are published for the benefit of Benin's large urban middle class.
    • You cannot control mod-created characters without the consent of mod responses. As such, your purported conversion of the hermit did not take place. You can, however, request he attends the royal court of Benin, but given what we know about the hermit it is unlikely. -Rexmod
    • The hermit, being a hermit, decides to stay where he believes he is needed-Sky
  • Aragon: Receives word that the first printing presses have arrived in Castile, and asks to purchase one of these specimens so that our researchers can reverse-engineer this new technological marvel and thereafter produce presses of our own. This will greatly improve the efficiency of communication in Iberia. We continue to ensure that ancient prejudices against the Jewry of Aragon do not flare up again, and civil protections are placed on Jewish Aragonese people. Meanwhile, the reconstruction of Barcelona is complete, half a year ahead of schedule, as are the Royal University of Barcelona campus and the head office of the Royal Bank of Barcelona. More to come.
  • Papal States: Old and frail Pope Callixtus III, hearing of the Emperor's sensible acts to protect the Jews, lifts the interdict he placed upon him and Prague last year. It is one of His Holiness' final acts before he dies. [Get voting, people]. His fisherman's ring is destroyed and the Holy Church enters a period of sede vacante.
    • Polish-Lithuanian Dip: Offers Their Holinesses (The two cardinals of the Papal States (John Novelli and Littorio de Foreno) as well as the Papal States, huge donations to get Bishop Zbigniew Oleśnicki elected as Cardinal. We believe this is only fair as every other major nation has its own cardinals.
    • Gurkani Diplomacy: Queen Regent Julia Komnenos requests the pope to appoint Cardinals to represent the Greek and Armenian community residing in the Gurkani Sultanate. 
  • Mogadishu: The nation's income continues to grow, both from increased tariffs and from the Royal Trade Fleet. Our manufacturers expand and make more money. We expand southward to connect our realm. 10,000 local tribesman and foreign settlers became citizens of our nation last year due to our policies of land reclamation and immigration attraction. We build cannons for our ships, just five each for our 20 largest ships. We continue to train our army. We continue spreading the silver denar in our lands, now backed by Mtwara Gold. We invade Mozambique.
    • ​Gurkani Diplomacy: Sultan Zeeshan Beg sends a letter to the leader of Mogadishu, inviting him to Shia Islam and calling upon him to convert to Zaidism. The Sultan states that Mogadishu should declare the Caliph of Persia as the true Caliph, and should recognize his spiritual and religious authority over Muslims. Sultan Zeeshan states that this action will emancipate the people of Mogadishu, and will also aid Mogadishu in breaking free from Abbasid influence.
    • Mogadishu Diplomacy: Sultan Ali agrees in conversion and says it will happen in two to three years. He asks the Gurkani to send some support to quell unrest during the time.
  • Duchy of Thuringen: The city guard continues to defend the capital city of Erfurt. Our military grows by adding more recruits each year. We continue to trade again with our neighboring states. Farming goes well in our nation this year. The healthy population continues to increase by 3% each year. Karsten's improvement in the training area is continuing to show off. Our economy continues to try to rebuild itself from the collapse of 1439. We continue to invest in Ekehard's printing press, thinking it will help boost our economy of our nation back to what it used to be in 1438 before the collapse.
  • Brandenburg-Luxembourg: Military reforms continue and are nearly completed with the Brandenburgian force now standing at 17,000 while the Luxembourg forces stand at 3000. With the reforms in the process of finishing the changes are noticible from the days of Jobst von Luxembourg. With many of the young nobles officials in the new army their loyalty is secured through regular payments by the Prince-elector and by continued support of the Brandeburg liberties and privileges recognized by the house of Brandenburg. As tensions grow along the border with the Teutons a Brandenburg border patrol confiscate the property of a travelling teuton merchant caravan heading into Brandenburg territory as supposed payment for insults given to authorities. This is followed by a skirmish initiated by Brandenburgian forces on the border with the Monastic order that ends in an inconclusive manner. Tensions ultimately explode with that as Heinrich mobilizes his new forces in case the Teutons decide to react as well as declares an embargo on the Teutonic Order forbidden their ships and merchants from gaining access to Brandenburgish Ports, and he calls on his allies Sweden, Poland, and Burgundy to support him in case war becomes a reality in secret. A delegation is sent to Bohemia in secret requesting that the emperor stay out of this matter as it was established by the Treaty of Prague that Brandenburg had a free hand in North Germany for 50 years at least. Heinrich discloses to his closest advisors that he plans to take the Prussian lands of the teuton lands to keep them from falling to other powers as the teutons have made many enemies and to consolidate his control over the german part of baltic trade, something that the council of advisors and mechants agree wholeheartedly to. Industry and trade continue to grow due to the very favorable policies of the Prince Elector. In Luxembourg the firearms industry starts to pick up thank to new focus on them by the Elector and gun smithies start to grow in business leading to large collaboration with the metal workers to improve the guns. In the university of Luxembourg an interest in philosophy, and natural sciences grows exponentially with the intellectual community there thriving. Optics, natural sciences and alchemy (precursor to chemistry) start to grow in importance in the university(particular focus is given to Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, with Algebra, Geometry, Astronomy, Anatomy and Medicine there), while the university of Berlin becomes well known for its focus on political and religious thought because of the wipespread intermixing of ideas from both catholics and Hussites. Claus von Havel, the grandson of the famous Hussite general becomes a professor of theology at the Uniersity of Berlin and soon a close friend of the Elector ultimately becoming the tutor of the young Otto von Brandenburg. Heinrich offers Thuringia a trade agreement. Local collective banking systems start to pick up in Berlin and Luxembourg as an alternative to big banking as they are community based and are based on the funds of the city allowing for it to remain local and if there are any defaults the matter can be dealt with on a local level, though the cooperative in Luxembourg begins to make some deals with the Bank of Antwerp. Heinrich's niece, the young beauty Annora, now 12 as a potential wife to the future Duke of Burgundy.
    • Thuringen Dip: We accept the trade agreement.
  • Rwanda: We consolidate our hold in Buganda. We allow Benin to deal with this, "Hermit Preacher", and we continue to build roads across the newly conquered Bugandan territory. We are building stone buildings all across our cities, which has been done with the help of the Benin missionaries, and our King, makes a speech. "For many centuries, my people have been in poverty. Our lives ruled by superstition, and now that is no more. We shall unite every East African that lives in a hut, and we shall build cities. We shall conquer, we shall make an Empire." The Rwandan Empire has been proclaimed.
  • Iroquois Confederacy: Construction continues at Skawennahawi, where the Ohio River meets the Mississippi. With Wichita and now Cherokee help, the city is projected to take eight more years to complete but without speaking with the other leaders involved in the project, a solid date is hard to figure out. Having been promised land for fighting with the Iroquois against the Potawatomi, the chief of the Winnebago arrives in Nowadaga with a large group of braves. Chief Apenimon meets with him to discuss his concerns. After much deliberation, he agrees to send 500 braves from Seneca, along with 200 volunteers from across the Confederacy, to assist the Winnebago in capturing Kickapoo lands. The only thing we ask is that the Winnebago pay tribute to the Iroquois and offer their braves whenever called upon, they are free to rule themselves however they see fit otherwise (Mod response). After defending his land from countless Potawatomi raids, the chief of the Erie region calls for aid. Chief Apenimon sends Chogan's 500 braves from Cayuga to defend the border along OTL Michigan/Ohio.
  • The Winnebago accept to pay tribute but wish not to send their braves to die for other people (i.e. only defensive wars)
  • Bahmanids: 25,000 men and 60 ships are send to assist Mogadishu in its warring. At home, Ismail Shah commissions the construction of a grand mosque in Gulbarga. People are encouraged to move to Sindh in an ongoing effort to make Karachi a great port.
    • Gurkani Diplomacy: The Sultan Zeeshan Beg calls upon Ismail Shah to convert to the Zaidi sect of Shia Islam, and to recognice the authority of the Zaidi Caliph of Persia over the Abbasid Sunni Caliph.
  • Croatia: The King sends a message to the Bohemian King and Holy Roman Emperor in a request to bethroth his daughter. Update: The marriage is planned while the Sabor with support of the King issues a charter that allows the Sabor to elect a new monarch if there is no direct heir to the King or if the King himself allows it.
    • Bohemian Dip: We accept the betrothal, and send Eva to Croatia for the marriage.
  • Ahom Kingdom: Susenphaa asks for the ceding of one-thrid of Koch's land to the Ahom Kingdom for peace. (MOD RESPONSE PLEASE. PLEASE ALSO RESPOND FASTER. THANKS)A massive victory parade is conducted for the victors of the Second Ahom-Koch War. It remains to be seen if Koch will accept the offer or decline. The Ahom army is prepared to re-enter the war if Koch does not agree.
  • Koch agrees. -Scraw
  • King Olaf of Sweden: My children, Adele and Nils begin being more active and I hail my son as Jarl of Småland. Magnus shows inclination as an artist and Kristina is a sweet bundle of joy. Seeing Queen Emma irresponsible in her son's caretaking, I am taking tutelage over little Eric, and devote as many hours of my time to him. He seems happy around me, Isabella and the children. He sees me as his loving uncle, and we speak a lot in Swedish, Danish and Latin. I have continued instructing him in state affairs. Alas, he is very dependent on me and has his attacks of visions, which leaves me questioning if he may ot be possessed. I continue a policy of expanding eastward in Finland, to reach the Russian border. In order to chear Demetrius up, I go to his castle and drink some beer with him. This doesn't cheer him up, though. I set up large thrall markets in the south, to promote thrall catching in the North. I accept Mikkael's proposal for splitting the Northern lands and require a map. Eric has a son named Ludwig born to him. I reaffirm my alliance with Brandenburg and secretly agree to their plan. We ask the pope to remove Blekinge from the Archbishopric of Lund and add it to the Archbishopric of Uppsala, in light of the current changes. I also send a secret letter to the disgruntled Russian nobles, telling them we will aid them in their revolution. ((Skyboi you're my only hope))'Settlers find a lake (OTL Oulujärvi) and annex an area around it to Sweden.
    • The Russians say "Think, have gopnik award."
  • Portugal: Naval expansion. Trade Expansion. Cartaz Expansion. Propose marriage of Eleanor of Portugal to the heir of Bohemia. Exploration up and down the coast continues. (Busy AF)
  • Bohemia: Wenceslaus V forms the Imperial Circles for the Holy Roman Empire. (See details on the HRE page). We threaten Thuringia with war a final time if they do not return their unlawful lands. Wenceslaus V slowly begins a continuation of Germanization policies in Bohemia and our crown lands. However, we do not enact the policies in Hungary. We ask Portugal for a wedding, our heir Heidrich I for Eleanor of Portugal. We construct the University of Dresden in Saxony. We also construct the University of Belgrade in Serbia, and begin to put major funds into education.
    • Portugal agrees.
  • Kingdom of England: King Richard IV hears reports of 'raiding' in the English marches from across the border and concludes that since England has left Scotland independent it has never truly rebuilt itself as a Kingdom and so the King orders an army to be mustered and to invade Scotland heading for Edinburgh where they can negotiate with the King of Scotland about helping the Scottish regain control of the country and protect it better while also arguing that James II is being poorly advised while he is still a minor and may need help removing these dangerous influences. Our Army sets off from Northumberland to Edinburgh bringing artillery to help smash the walls of Edinburgh if they don't surrender. The army is 10,000 strong and led by Richard IV himself while 5,000 troops are left in England and his wife is left as Regent supported by the King's councillors. With the war in Scotland developing we are forced to halt projects such as the expansion of the navy and schools during the duration of the war but other than that life in England remains normal although people eagerly await news about the war with Scotland. The King makes it clear he still respects Danish, Norweigan and Swedish holdings in and around Scotland.
  • Mayapan: Aztec expansion is heavily but discreetly monitored and preliminary defenses are prepared in case of war. The military is kept on the border, prepared to deal a blow to the Aztecs. Emperor Atlahua continues rallying the citizens of the nation for, what he believes, is an imminent war against the Aztecs. He stirs up nationalist sentiment with the citizens, increasing unity between the city-states. Integration of the southern city-states into the League is continued by the High Council. Each new state is expected to supply men to train and serve in the national army. The council seeks to improve commerce and communication between the many settlements of the Yucatan by constructing and maintaining roads between them. Work continues to renovate and update existing buildings, roads and to create plans for future upkeep and renovations.
  • Japan: The Ashikaga Shogunate continues to work on uniting the power of the Shogun with the Shinobi. With the Korean expansion into Hokkaido, Japan instructs Korea to cease their expansion into Hokkaido immediately. The navy improves drastically. More things happen.
  • Cologne: This year, yet another Dietrich Council as per the terms of the Concord of Luxembourg is held, with all complaints of Hussites in the region being resolved peacefully. (OOC: So I forgot the 1439 one guys but please assume it still happened.) Seeing as this is less of an issue, Dietrich II decides to hold this Council only once every 20 years from now on, with the next Dietrich Council to be held in 1469. Stelzner, the new Papal Count and inventor of the printing press, is upset by the continued violence against Jews and with the Archbishop’s permission writes a letter to the pope as a thank-you for the Bull directed at him, offering to send the younger of his two sons to His Holiness to print Papal Bulls and other important documents, in order to ensure that papal documents are adequately distributed amongst the people. In other news, the barracks in Westphalen complete construction by the end of the year and local Knights begin to use it as a place to train their squires and pages, with the latest weaponry and armour from Westphalen. Further, Dietrich II decides to stop building ports and instead spends a significant sum on improving the main port in Cologne and all interior tracks that lead to that main port in order to make Cologne itself more efficient in trading. Finally, Dietrich II SECRETLY writes a return letter to Poland, thanking Poland for its offer and explaining that Cologne has long been in alliance with Bohemia and thus has some reservations about this. However, given that His Holiness is in support of Brandenburg instead, Dietrich II would agree to vote for himself (rather than give a vote to Bohemia) in return for a guarantee of independence from expanding powers, and potentially vote for Brandenburg specifically in the future if an alliance rather than a mere trade relationship can be achieved. (OOC: I have some ideas for this, and will indent Brandenburg soon. If I forget, please remind me.)
    • Essen: Abbess Sophia tires of sending her offer to Norway and Austria, though these offers remain open, and instead asks Poland to send copies of some of its best texts. Further, Abbess Sophia also proposes a trade deal between Poland and Cologne/Essen, with Dietrich II’s permission, which would include the silver and coal being mined in Essen among other things.
  • Majapahit Empire: Gustimaharaja Kuwat Wira officially decides to send at least 120 ships to Pegu, and a force of at least 80,000 to strike at Pegu, although the trip would take a year before it reaches the coastlines, while infrastructure continues to be developed, and cultural integration of Borneo and the Celebes continues. Kesuburan grows to include a population of 470, and the settlement is expanded by 1 px to take into account the growth in population. As many explore deeper into Papua, explorers return with tales of tribes in the region and locals who still relied on tools of stone and lived in small villages. The Godking is intrigued about this, though more immediate concerns are being prioritised, such as a new split between the Sundanese and the Javanese sects, and the Keeper's Council ruling that the Sundanese ideas of the concept of "heaven" exists, but Karma and reincarnation are involved in the concept, as there are various levels of heaven, by which the level of it is determined by your Karma. Depending on the level of heaven you arrive in, you either remain there or reincarnate. The higher the good Karma, the less likely reincarnation becomes. Kuwat Wira agrees with the ruling as a compromise, but he questions the validity of the documents, thus ordering them hidden away in secret, and sent to the bottom of Lake Toba, where it is hoped that the documents will never be found.
  • Austrian Archduke Albert V & II, hearing no response from Wurttemberg, chooses to act in a slightly different manner. Sending a letter to his son in further Austria, he instructs him to exact the Duke's loyalty. He tells his son that the Duke had agreed to swear fealty, but his decisiveness might be questionable, instructing young Ferdinand to bring the army with him to "strengthen the Duke's resolve and protect your person", amongst other instructions. On midnight of May 4th, ten thousand men cross the Wurttemberg border and approach te capital of Stuttgart. Fredinand camps the army twenty kilometers away from the city, and approaches with an honour guard of two hundred the rest of the way. He asks an audience with the Duke of Wurttemberg, saying that he is willing to take the Duke's oath of fealty to his father, the Archduke. Amongst the concesions he is permitted to give are "exhemption from all taxes save those needed for war, the privilege to sit at all councils and voice his opinion, speaking directly after the Archbishop of Salzburg as well as limiting military obligations to defensive conflicts, giving the duke full decision on joining offensive wars". Ferdinand waits patiently for the Duke's response...MOD RESPONSE NEEDED. Meanwhile, in Austria proper, the Austrian ARchducal Bank of Commerce prospers. Anti-Semitic fervor begins to quiet down with the aid of the Austrian government. The Administrative reform that took place in the past greatly increases efficiency while increasing the power of the Archduke.
  • Duke says no -Sky.
    • In Salzburg, Although slightly resentful of his new loyalty to the Austrians, Archbishop Fredrich IV nonetheless wishes to slightly appease the Archduke, now seeing as the Pope has taken his side in the matter. As such, the Archbishop institutes Austrian Weights and measures, as well as decrees a slow transition to the Austrian Pfund as central currency of the Archbishopric. In order to save money, the Archbishop releases much of the Armed forces, believing the responsibilities must be taken up by his new overlord. 
  • Ethiopia: Wealth is streaming from the markets of Ethiopia. Zera sets up the Bank of Aksum to manage the wealth of the state. After fishing villages pop up along the coast of the red sea Zera claims all land leading to the sea, roads construction is started immediately. Settlements also slowly creep up the Blue Nile. Zera begins to advocate for more workshops in cities to increase the production capabilities of the Empire. With the success of the nation Zera has a week long fair in Aksum for the populace.  
  • In the Kingdom of Italy, Niccolò Maria Visconti decides that the time has come to consolidate the titular Kingdom of Italy into his realm. To this end, he declares war upon Modena, Ferrara, Mantua, and Padua and mobilizes his army of condottieres to conquer the four small princely republics. The army faces the defenders at the Siege of Padua, where the city falls to Italian forces. The four nations are annexed into Italy. Elsewhere in the realm, local princes continue to focus on the arts. Donatello has emerged as the new leader of the Milanese school, with his revolutionary Renaissance sculpture earning international respect and prestige for his patron, the King of Italy. Meanwhile, some sailors, hearing of the lucrative trade with Africa, begin to sail past Gibraltar and southward along the coast of Africa. 
  • In the Kingdom of Naples, Queen Mary Anjou continues to oversee the transition out of feudalism and into a modern state, based upon Italy as an example. The six duchies continue to be more and more centralized within themselves, and industry comes to the larger cities, which also see an influx of residents due to higher birth rates and urbanization.
  • Abbasid Caliphate: The Caliph Malik Al-Najm Al-Akbar Abbas, the first of that name, continued to build up his residence in the city of Damascus, writing back to the Ulema in Cairo. Having left the Persians in chaos, it was only fitting that they adhere to the heretical practices of the Zayidi Shia. Al-Najm proclaimed from Damascus that all the Shia of the Caliphate, including the Alawites and Druze of Syria, may leave the Arab lands for Persia if they so desired. Some scholars in Alexandria, however, disputed this proposal, considering that the Shia sects may have some insightful theology to benefit from. In the last ten years, Al-Najm had worked to construct two Universities, one in Alexandria, and one in Beyrut. These are the continuation of the cultural reforms started by his father, Al-M'utadid. Epic peotry continues to emanate from these kind of educational institutions, with the Caliphate's first proto novel written in Damascus. The territories in Africa continue to expand.
  • Runorqo Empire: The Empire continues constructions of fortifications and essentially castles throughout the Empire. Expansion to the south continues and canals, forts and roads are built as the Empire expands. Research into better ships and weaponry continues. Work on expanding the sewage system across the Empire continues, helping to greatly decrease the rate of sickness and disease in the major cities.

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