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The Second Race to the West CoastThe Srivijaya, the Sinicans, and the Japanese had grown once more and desired to extend their colonies on the West Coast. The Sinicans and Japanese once again felt the need to find an alternative trade route to the Roman Empire by circumnavigation. This action, which had been one of the purposes of the colonies since the beginning, had not happened yet and some believed that there was simply an endless extension of lands and seas and that Rome would never be found again if they could not get through India or the unorganized and dangerous territories of Central Asia. But the navigators that had grown up going from the Japanese Shogunates in OTL Alaska or who had moved back and forth from Zhimindi to mainland Sinica or the Srivijaya Empire felt they knew better. Hakuba Kazuhiro was the first Captain of the Japanese Navy to be born in the colonies. He was born in the Minamoto Shogunate near the city of New Shizuo (Juneau, Alaska). He also prompted the government to fun new expeditions in the warmer southern parts of the continent that had been rumored to be more populated and which might lead to a favorable trade route to Europe. It also could have a greater maximization of profits for the Empire because it is a more hospitable and fertile area than Alaska. Trang Botum was similarly a success story from the colonies and his partner, and friend, Wang Tian Che also advocated for the Srivijaya and Sinicans to move south. This new fever prompted the distribution of a specific form of propaganda that sold these new territories as a “Haven” and a “Paradise”. The expeditions to these areas came along with volunteer colonists, most of them were the poor who gave their life savings to move there. Criminals, runaway prostitutes, people fleeing from their families, and also the homeless were also in high numbers on these ships moving to extend the colonies.
The Death of Trieu Minh Vuong
The City of New Dongguan (新东莞), founded by Wang Tian Che in 1400 landing in the Puget Sound near what is OTL Seattle, Washington was the first of the new Sinican cities and it was the main port through which extended many new settlements reaching around this body of water. Trang Botum, in an arrangement with the Sinicans, moved below the area settled by Want Tian Che in what is today Washington and Oregon, USA. The Sinicans and the Srivijaya, as expected with the end of the Srivijaya War of Succession, cooperated in the colonization efforts in this part of the world. That is, they did so until the death of Samraat Trieu Minh Vuong in the year 1423 (670 AD). After nearly two decades of cooperation in this new venture, the Srivijaya and their alliance structure was once again up in the air. Trieu Minh Vuong died childless and all his relatives were killed in the war. The Japanese supported a relative of Bisaya, their desired leader of the Second Srivijaya Empire, but this once again set the Srivijaya into war.
The Srivijaya PartitionThe Sinicans, without a reasonable successor to back as the Japanese had with King Samaratunga, brother in law of Bisaya, were left without cause to enter into another war in the Srivijaya Islands. Many at home felt that if these people were so ill equipped to find their own successor then the Sinicans ought simply to annex them and treat them as colonies. During some negotiations with the Japanese, both sides contemplated the idea of splitting the Srivijaya in half, doing the same with the colonies as well, and then managing them separately. The largest contention between them was which halves ought to go to whom. The two great Empires, after only one small skirmish on the island of Timor, settled on a dividing strategy.
The Sinicans took Southeast Asia, including the island of Sumatra which had belonged to the Khmer. The island of Java also went to the Sinicans and the Japanese were given the territories east of that. Though it appears that the Japanese had more territory given to them, it should be noticed that the Sinican territories were not only wealthier in terms of their pre-war economy but also in their resources and potentials. The Japanese on the other hand have the means to build up a new economy in these colonies and were therefore not upset at the arrangement, which was settled in 1430 (677 AD)The main bodies to these negotiations were the eunuchs of the Sinican Empire and the six highest nobles along with the Emperor of Japan. The Srivijaya were clearly left out of these arrangements. The people and leaders in the area that the Japanese took felt especially marginalized by these measures as they were not only not consulted during this turn of events but they were also not parties to most of the discussions that led to the founding of the short lived, Second Srivijaya Empire. In the South east Asian region of the new Sinican territory, the Khmer, who remained the wealthiest power of the several that were there, expected a reign over this new area as they expected during the Second Srivijaya Empire. In a large part they received this and in exchange for receiving a much lower share of the money coming out from this new region, named New Yongzhou Province, the first governors of the region who were appointed by the Emperor were of Khmer heritage.
The New World after the Srivijaya PartitionThe Partition of the colonies of the Srivijaya also needed to be determined after the war. The areas that had been part of the Sinican-Srivijaya joint colony was split between New Sundapura and Savandri giving the southern portion to the Sinicans. By this time the city of Savandri was by far the largest of the three major cities started in the colony of Zhimindi. The Japanese named the area gained by this partition the Kazuhiro Shogunate after Captain Hakuba Kazuhiro, though leadership was actually held by Hakuba’s younger brother, a lieutenant named Tatsu Kazuhiro. In the most southern portion of the area that the Srivijaya took during the Second Race for the West Coast, the Japanese were giving a small portion which they viewed as an unfair pittance and an inconvenience because the Sinican Colony was between them. The Japanese took this deal because they, secretly, were afraid of taking on the Sinicans directly once again. The Japanese Navy needed reconstruction by coming into some amount of resources. Their reputation for strength on the seas was no longer sufficiently being handled by the amount of ships and weapons they could build. They would soon need to replenish their armories or face the potential of losing a war, something unheard of and taboo in the Japanese culture.
In the lands that the Japanese gained from the partition of the Srivijaya’s New World colonies, the area in the OTL Alaska Panhandle, many new sources of zinc, lead, nickel, and other metals were found in great quantity. The Japanese, with this find, introduced a new technology. They clad the sides of their ships with iron, these ironclad ships proved to be very effective in the encounters that the Japanese had while expanding into the areas of OTL California when Sinica’s government believed that it had a claim to them. From 1430 (677 AD) to 1454 (701 AD), the Japanese moved into as far south as Yoshimichi Bay 原嘉湾(Moneteray Bay) and as far inward as the Tsunenori River 恒憲川 (San Joaquin River) and the Kazumoto River 量基川(Sacramento River) and held a strong claim to it. They also extended the depth of their Alaska colony. At the same time the SInicans did much of the same and moved outward to try and prevent the Japanese from connecting their two sections.As the Japanese colony approached closer and closer towards the Great Alliance of the Aztecs and other Mesoamericans in OTL Mexico, it became more likely that the countries would meet. This eventually came when in 1466 (713 AD) a new group of native was found far south of the current border of the Japanese Colony by an explorer seeking the extent of the possible coast line. These people were referred to as Kasshokujin 褐色人 (meaning “brown people”) a switch from the term Yaban 野蛮 (meaning “barbarian”) used by the Japanese for the natives in their other colonies. This represents an understanding that the people of central and southern Mexico could have as much respect as the Japanese as civilized and not inferior people. Their contact with these people was limited at first but as the Japanese grew so did the trade there.
The Fifth Sino-Japanese War
Danandao The Great Southern Island 大南島 (Australia)With the expansion of the Sinican Empire into southeast Asia, they sought to monopolize their position there rather than focus too heavily on the new world. By they we mean to say the Eunuchs who had essentially taken control of the country away from the series of weak and uneducated monarchs who were complacent in living in the lap of luxury without care for the affairs of state. The best place and opportunity that they had to do this was in the large and mostly unknown island we call Australia. The northern area, which had bee settled ad was currently controlled by he Japanese, was known to be wealthy with resources of minerals. The rest was a mystery and none seemed to eager to determine is extent or value. That is until 1431 (678 AD), when the Sinican Government chose to take control of the remaining part of this region. By the year 1439 (686 AD), there were government initiated settlements so far along the border that it gave a secure claim to the coasts of the island, locking it from any further expansions. In the interior parts of the island were thin groups of tribes that would come under attack as the Sinicans spread inward. Eventually the Japanese felt their claims on that island were threatened and tensions began to simmer over alleged border aggressions started by one or the other. In the New World also the Sinicans were moving out steadily. By 1454 (701 AD) the Japanese had most of OTL California and were still moving but the Sinicans needed to expand even more, for fear of becoming surrounded by Japanese territory. In anticipating this the Japanese Emperor Ingyo 允恭 laid claim to thousands of sq km of unexplored lands surrounding the current Sinican territory. This law, which sent waves throughout Asia very quickly, ignited the sleeping Sinican military into attacking the Japanese outright.
The Fifth Sino-Japanese War
In 1457 (704 AD) the Sinicans moved into the areas that the Japanese controlled in Danandao (Australia) and at the same time moved into New Sundapura (Ketchikan, Alaska) one of the largest cities in the Northern part of the Japanese Territory. Finally the Sinicans set out to take the most northern and populous settlement of the Japanese southern colony (OTL California area) in New Saitama 新しい埼玉 (Gold Beach, Oregon). These three goals would be the cause of the Fifth Sino-Japanese War.In the new world the battle was going extremely well for the Japanese. The naval stations that had been near that region had moved to the islands of Borneo and Taiwan, where they expected the Sinicans to go if they were to try and take more of these islands. Others were also moved all the way to the new world. The Japanese region of Danandao was falling faster than their government could account for and it was before the end of the year 1457, the same year that the war was declared, that this goal was reached.
The New world was a much different story. In New Sundapura there was a massive amount of naval bases and many more that could come from OTL Alaska. The Shoguns in Alaska led their several regiments into the city and it became clear that this city was not going to be an easy victory as Danandao was. That being said, the morale of the Japanese was severely diminished following the loss of Danandao. The Japanese knew that this was a battle they could win but many were so distraught in their own abilities that they panicked. This doubt made the Japanese lose much more soldiers than they would have been expected to looking at the statistics. That being said the Battle of Sundapura turned out a victory for the Japanese.
The loss of New Sundapura was partly bad and good for the Sinicans. In one way they no longer had to manage their troops in two simultaneous battles, the other being in New Saitama (Gold Beach, Oregon), but a loss is still a loss. The Battle of New Saitama was a mix because both sides had made a victory and a loss in this war. The Japanese, who still had soldiers from their Empire to put into the new world were competing with the same large amount of soldiers being thrown into New Saitama.The population of soldiers put into this battle approached nearly twice the amount that lived in the city itself. This caused a tremendous amount of damage in the city and the Japanese were hemorrhaging funds in this one battle that became a stalemate lasting nearly two years, from the end of the Battle for New Sundapura. The Japanese and the Sinicans were becoming close to decimating their own militaries for this single city but the negotiations that had begun were incredibly terse. While soldiers continued to die in OTL Oregon the leaders of both Empires could not reach common ground.
The Japanese demanded return of their lands in Danandao (Australia), The Sinicans demanded a rescinding of the law that laid a tremendous claim of Japanese land in the New World. Both believed that these actions were totally justified and did not intend to budge. The Eunuchs believed that the Japanese would bend first and the Japanese thought the same of Sinica. In the year 1464 (711 AD) the war had been going on for nearly seven years and the Japanese were the first to ask for a renewal of talks. The Japanese agreed to set aside their large claim to lands surrounding the Sinican colony as well as accept their control of Danandao and give then the city of New Saitama in exchange for an indemnity from Sinica amounting to around 35 million US dollars and an agreement to allow the Japanese and Sinicans to expand as they chose and to avoid belligerency with each other for as long as possible.
The Second RepublicIn the Roman Empire a new trend was brewing. The Emperor was becoming increasingly more resigned from the affairs of the Empire. As the country grew there was a new theory among many of the leadership that came from the successful men of the scientific community and religious community. In both they noticed that it it natural that people specialize in certain fields. The scientists in geology, chemistry of mathematics and the gods specialize in certain aspects of the world. These two lobbied for this to apply to government also. The Senate and the Emperor had been the power stations of Rome but they never specialized in any particular field. The Senate enacted a law requiring the Emperor to appoint several new positions to regulate the vast bureaucracy of the Roman Empire. There had already been a group of ministers to certain posts but these new positions would be able to act with much more independence and without most of the constraints of the Emperor.
An older generation of Emperors might have objected to any loss of their power, but the current reigning family, the Capiti, had grown more attached to wealth and prestige than power or responsibility. They took this law as something of a break for them from the stressful job of managing the largest Empire in the world. Emperor Horatius in the year 1442 (689 AD) removed himself nearly entirely with the passage of this law after he appointed a Minister for Agriculture, Finance, War, Trade, Foreign Affairs, Construction, Education, Transportation, Industry, and Justice as required.Though this cabinet did not totally overtake the office of the Emperor it is considered to be the start of a much less Imperial style of government in Roman History. The Senate and this new group of administrators, named the Decemvirate (or group of ten men) which was an ancient term that grew out of use since the Republic, took on much of Emperor Horatius's responsibilities. The Senate and the Decemvirate were more accountable to the people than Horatius who was seen as closer to a deity. Each Decemvir had to be approved by the Senate and the Senate required the approval of the people since the time of Emperor Carolus. The Second Republic became was much more focused on the people at first but this trend would stray as industry and the colonies grew. These ten men were more able to manage their specified duty than Horatius was by himself, as was expected. However, with the new freedom found by giving power to lower members of a bureaucracy, as the Emperor had done, the decemviri did much the same in many instances.
The Governors and their own groups of ministers began taking over aspects of their province and acting independently. Of course, a lot of power still rested with the Imperial government and they exercised it frequently but this was the start of a trend that would move gradually.
The United TribesA shift towards unification began to spread as the United Tribes was formed in their opposition to the terror of the Cimbria Alliance and their brutal aggression. The Cimbrians had moved their troops to the border but still grew more hateful and spiteful of the native peoples, especially considering the Romans's support of them and their losses in Chief Hanon’s War. In 1429 (676 AD) eight years after the founding of the United Tribes, the tribes of the Montaukett and Shinnecock had laid down their arms considering the large changes on the continent. They joined as the fifteenth and sixteenth tribes, the first after the original fourteen. At this year Chief Hanon made a speech that quickly spread throughout the tribes to the south and across the Great Lakes to the Minwaking, Zitkala, Cahokian and Wisconsin.
“A Spectre of Unity had entered our world. These large Empires have come to our land and some have sought to take it from us. They use their size and unity against our divided, proud and independent people. Well, I want to announce to everyone that this will be no more. We will have a territory to rival these invaders and we shall do it through consent not force, to protect freedom not money, and to advance the cause of humanity to a better future and not to crush what we might think of as inferior.” - Chief Hanon, Annexation of Shinnecock and Montaukett in 1429.
The Spectre of Unity was certainly spreading. In the year 1431 (678 AD) the leaders of the Tsalagi and the Weapemeoc, the most powerful of the southern tribes, met with Chief Hanon on the nature of annexation. Some more radically minded people had spread rumors that entering into the United Tribes would cause them to lose their culture and individuality. They said that there was only the doctrine of collective defense to found the new Union and that they could use that to take whatever they wanted. The Weapemeoc Chief, Ahiga, and the Tsalagi Chief, Kuruk, could not overlook this and pleaded for there to be a foundation for the preservation of the independence of the tribes.
The Constitution of the United TribesIn 1432 (679 AD) the United Tribes Constitution was written which contained elements from the grievances of the independents as well as the philosophers coming in from Rome. The Tribal Constitution was organized into Four Articles. The first one concerned the Chief of the United Tribes, who would be selected by the Great Council and serve a life term. He was placed in charge of the military and was head of diplomatic relations on behalf of his nation. He had the power to make new government offices to fulfill the laws of the Union. The second article concerned the legislature of the United Tribes which was to be known as the Great Council. It would allocate a single vote to each of the tribes though they could send delegates in a number according to their population. The Third Article declared the same essentially as the Hanon Doctrine and the powers of the Great Council to declare war to defend these tribes. Lastly the Fourth Article declared that the tribes could hold their own legislatures which could nullify a law that they did not agree with, as well as state that a majority of the legislature or other government of a tribe in adopting this Constitution and the agreement of the Great Council would be the only requirement for annexation.
This was adopted unanimously by the sixteen tribes and they approved of the entrance of the seventeenth and eighteenth tribes, the Tsalagi and the Weapemeoc, entered the Union in 1433 (680 AD). Following this the Catawba and Cusabo in 1434 (681 AD), the Waccamaw in 1435 (682 AD), the Tuskeegee in 1436 (683 AD) and the Muskogee and Chickasaw in 1438 (685 AD) entered the United Tribes. In 1439 (686 AD) when the last annexation law was passed in the Great Council for the Chickasaw there were twenty four tribes in the Union and the Romans and Cimbrians bordered them to the south and north respectively.
The Western Tribes
MichiganIn the Minwaking and Zitkala chiefdoms there was an increased necessity for money as most of their budget was going to their military to defend against the Cimbrians. Cimbria had an interest in the region but refused to attack until they had hedged against another defeat. The Minwaking and the Zitkala, who were surprised at how they were able to get along when they had a common enemy. The Minwaking Chief Naragan and the Zitkala Chief Kwatoko had both been raised to hate the other’s country and people but found that they had much in common. It was an odd pair for most of the people of these chiefdoms had the same prejudice against the other. In a sign of good faith the son of Kwatoko was married to Naragan and they intended to create a new nation called the Michigan Alliance after the death of both Chiefs. The Minwaking and Zitkala became interested in expansion into the many tribes on their border so their soldiers could fight in their wars but the Minwaking and Zitkala would not need to spend time on governing these people. They began making new protectorate chiefdoms. The Minwaking helped found the chiefdoms to the south of their border, these were the Miami, the Tippecanoe and the Kaskasia. The Zitkala dealt with the more important task of making protectorates to the north, where the Cimbrians were more likely to strike first. These people were the Nipigon, the Cree, and the Chippewa.They were in the unenviable position of taking the brunt of any force that the Cimbrians were to make and by the year 1449 (696 AD) these nations were established but not with the firmness that the Qochata or New Huritians had before they came under attack. Many in the region were pessimistic about their future but they continued to maintain their position because surrender before a battle is the worst sort of defeat.
WisconsinIn Wisconsin a different trend was going on. The Wisconsin intended to expand as aggressively as they could and to take as much land from their surrounding tribes as possible. The Wisconsin had much less of a regard for the fate of their fellow tribes but did not believe that this was a violation of the Unity spoken of so fondly by Native Americans at this time. Rather, the Wisconsin felt that theirs was a tribe meant to unite smaller tribes without any separation between them. They believed that the tribe system of the Constitution of the United Tribes still kept them separate by giving each tribe its independence rather than fully absorbing them. Those who opposed the Wisconsin Expansion were attacked viciously.
The Wisconsin were very removed from the border of the Cimbrian Colony, though that does not mean that they feared it any less. The main justification for this expansion to more sympathetic elements in the Wisconsin government was their need for more resources and soldiers in case of an attack. Cimbria was a blessing in disguise for many in the government because they could use the fear of them to justify almost any increase for power. One thing the Wisconsin wanted was a greater presence on Lake Huron and the Mississippi River. They also founded a treaty of friendship between themselves, the Michigan, and thereby with all the Michigan client states. No major battles came out of the Wisconsin’s expansion and by the year 1455 (702 AD), twenty one years into their expansion, they began to turn back and settle their new territories.
CahokiaThe Cahokians were not worried about the threat of the CImbrians at all. Unlike the United Tribes which had already been attacked, the Romans and their ally the Maya who refused to work with the Cimbrians, the Michigan or their clients that were on their border or the Wisconsin who desired to justify their land grabs, Cahokia was in the center of the continent far from the Cimbrians. They continued to use their unique position as a bargaining chip. Their surplus of war goods and materials to manufacture weapons with won them great amounts of wealth from the United Tribes and the Michigan especially. Their control on the intersection of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers gave them a very profitable toll area for the Michigan and Wisconsin seeking to trade with Rome or the Maya, as the Great Lakes were cut off essentially for the sea.
What better way to increase this power than by gaining more areas to toll. They moved down the Mississippi River, something that they had been planning to do but with reluctance, but came into an obstruction. The Romans, Maya, and United Tribes had sponsored a growing group of cities that became a chiefdom on the Mississippi River. The Cahokians did not know of this until they ran into a border dispute with them. They were known as the Chakchiuma and were sponsored to keep the Cahokians from controlling the whole River. These three nations were being hurt by the trade restrictions that the Cahokians were putting in place and they decided that in order to combat this a client state should be established so that they could use them as leverage against the Cahokians. In the case that Cahokia decided to raise their tolls they would reply with a complete cut off from the Chakchiuma who would be the blame for the losses of the Cahokians. The Michigan and the Wisconsin were the ones using this route and this essentially took advantage of their isolated position from other nations.
The United Tribes also made claims to land that would give them a land border with the Michigan Client state of Kaskasia and they intended to set down such a route through this land that the river could become obsolete in a matter of years. This left the Cahokians collecting more modest amounts from those trading through their nation but it also gave the United Tribes a power that they did not think to use before.
Destined DomainThe territory between the United Tribes and the Kaskasian border was claimed by the UT and they intended to take this area and settle it as they pleased. Chief Hanon found this to be justified because his nation was, as they claimed, meant to united the people of this land and they should have claim to any part of it they wanted. The people of the UT moved quickly to keep the Kaskasians from trying to take any part of it. They used this again in the year 1459 (706 AD) when they laid their claim to all land east of the Cahokians. This massive move came with sharp criticism from some natives against Chief Hanon’s expansions. Some believed that his expansions made him no better than the Cimbrians. Hanon, and a majority of the natives believed that this was to only way to stop the Cimbrians. The UT, in a surprisingly bold move, prohibited in a treaty with the Maya and Romans from allowing them to take land above the Chakchiuma state. The Maya did not want to accept this, and proposed that Rome take this country rather than negotiate with them but the Romans believed that their Empire could benefit from not taking on so much territory. Also, the Romans and Maya also intended to take territory to the vast and unexplored areas west of the Mississippi River.
The United Tribes set up a precedent that they had a right to access territory and claim it. The Cahokians and the other tribes that were not part of the United Tribes believed this was an infringement on their rights. The United Tribes did not intend to back down and would go to war with who they called their own people. Though it did not come to that the United Tribes were pushing onto the boundaries of the continent. In the year 1463 (710 AD), one year after the Great Council set up a system to organize territories, Chief Hanon died. His successor, who had been chosen years beforehand by Hanon for the Council to approve, was Chief Chayto who was originally born in the Susquehanna Chiefdom rose to power.
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