The 1402 Treaty of Baghdad between the Allies (the Roman Empire, the Grand Duchy of Moscow, and the Islamic Abbasid Caliphate) and the Song Dynasty of Serica was concluded in the autumn of 1402. It is the result of the First Silk War. It was translated into Latin, Greek, Chinese, Russian, and Arabic; although only the original Latin version has been found. It is regarded as the world's most important treaty of the time.


The First Silk War was started when tensions between the Roman Empire and the Serican Empire erupted, fueled by border disputes. The Roman government had longed to stop the import of Serican silk, for it took tons of gold from the Roman treasury. The Islamic Abbasid Caliphate and the Grand Duchy of Moscow soon allied themselves with the Roman and defeated the Sericans in 1402.

Terms of the treaty

  1. All captured military officers were to be returned.
  2. Sericans were to withdraw out of Central Asia, North Asia, and the Middle East.
  3. The Sercan Empire was to pay tributes to the Roman Empire, the Islamic Abbasid Caliphate, and the Grand Duchy of Moscow annually.
  4. All the main towns and forts of the Silk Road west of the Serica were to given to the Roman Empire.
  5. Serican silk was not to be sold on Roman soil to any Roman citizen.


The tributes and the compensation were delayed for several years because of internal disruption, famines, and rebellions in Serica. Meanwhile, on the other side of Eurasia, contacts with Serica were broken when the Islamic Abbasid Caliphate conquered the Roman dioceses of Oriens and Aegyptus. Interestingly, the Roman Empire and the Song Empire of Serica almost simultaneously collapsed in 1418.

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