Alternate History

1400-1499 (The Kalmar Union)

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Wessex - William II dies. William III succeeds.

HRE - Rupert of Bavaria leads an attempt to depose Emperor Wenceslaus. Luxembourg armies fight Bavarian, Swabian and Papal troops in almost every corner of the Empire.

Charles II Luxem (The Kalmar Union)

Charles II, King of Luxembourg, Hungary and Bohemia and Holy Roman Emperor (1400-1426)

Luxembourg, Hungary and Bohemia - Wenceslaus I dies. Charles II succeeds in all the Luxembourg territories.

Naples - Louis I dies. His son Charles IV inherits Naples.


Brynja I Alengia (The Kalmar Union)

Brynja I, Queen of Álengiamark (1402-1422)

Álengiamark - Elin IV dies. Her sister Brynja I succeeds.

Aragon - John II dies. Peter IV succeeds.


Gothenland - John IV dies. His son Eric III succeeds.


Vinland - The Ohio invade Hafsvaedaland. This cuts Kristjana off from support and money.


Asdis II (The Kalmar Union)

Asdis II, Queen of Vinland (1405-1420)

Vinland - Kristjana V is deposed by her cousin Asdis II, ending the anarchy. Asdis II reunites the two halves of Vinland and begins beseiging Ohio held towns in Hafsvaedaland.

Kristjana and her close family flees to Verao Island.


Verao Island - The exiled Kristjana V is apparently murdered by Portuguese agents eager to appease the new rulers in Vinland and keep them on their side.

Vinland- Asdis II officially declares Christianity to be Vinland's true religion but tolerates the various pagan rites being practised as long as they are outside of church land. No pagan temple is allowed to own land and all of their current land is made crown property. However the various pagan arch-priests are raised to the Althing's second chamber making them applicable to law and essentially independent.

Northern Leifia largely settles down to a period of peace. The Erieac know this as 'the breath'.


Eric VI Den (The Kalmar Union)

Eric VI, King of Denmark (1407-1426)

Denmark- Valdemar II dies. Eric VI succeeds.


Gothenland - Eric III dies. His brother Benedict is crowned.

Holy Roman Empire - After a considerable struggle Charles II of Luxembourg is crowned Emperor (Charles IV).



Lade - Novgorod raids the Northern-most settlements of Lade.

Vinland - Vinland moves 1,000 Greenlanders from their increasingly marginal farmland to help settle Hafsvaedaland in the Karontóborg area.


Bar - Joanna of Wantzenau is born in the Duchy of Bar.


France - France declares regency for the infant Duke of Bar beginning the Bar War. This is immediately opposed by the Luxembourgs who entice Arles and Anglia into an alliance to encircle France.

Gothenland - King Benedict dies. His sister Catherine succeeds.


France - Philip IV dies. His cousin the Duke of Berry, John III, succeeds.

Leon - King Henry I dies. Ferdinand VI succeeds.


Gothenland - Catherine dies ending the main line of the Gothenlandic Piasts. Her husband, Eric Lejonbalk, is crowned as Eric IV on behalf of their young son. He is almost immediately embroiled in various plots to remove him and replace him with various Piast pretenders.

Augsburg - Emperor Charles IV convenes the Council of Augsburg to solve the remaining issues caused by the Papal Schism.


Francia - France takes to scorched-earth techniques to prevent Arelat armies penetrating Champagne. The Empire is neither united nor peaceful enough to fully push the French out of Bar. Anglia contents itself with minor sieges on the Flemish and Hainault borders.

Bohemia - Jan Hus, the Bohemian proto-protestant reformer, is burnt at the stake.


Lade - Lade sends troops into the White Sea to enforce taxes on Arkhangelsk.

HRE - The Defenestration of Prague begins the Hussite Wars.

Prussia - Gothenland goes to war against Poland over the former's constant interference in Prussia. Poland secretly arms Hussites to storm Gothenlandic fortresses on the Baltic coast.


Hafdis IV (The Kalmar Union)

Hafdis IV, Queen of Vinland (1420-1453)

Vinland - Asdis II dies. She is succeeded by Hafdis IV.

Gothenland - Eric IV is murdered as part of the ongoing struggles for the crown. Loyalists raise the infant Christopher to the throne.

Western Leifia - Álengsk traders operating on the Roasjoinn witness the landing of Zheng He's massive treasure fleet. They are meant to be searching for Mexica but have landed several thousand miles to the north. This is sometimes attributed to the Hawaiian translators the Chinese were employing. They had erroneously assumed Hawaii was just an outlying island of Leifia and the natives would be able to translate and guide them. The men on board almost outnumber the Chinook natives onshore. The Chinese are put off revisiting for many years from the relative lack of trading opportunities.

Armagnac - The final Cathars finally renounce their heretical beliefs.


Denmark - Princess Elizabeth of Viken marries Prince Erik of Denmark.

Anglia - The St. Elizabeth's Day Flood kills perhaps 10,000 and causes devastation to Zeeland and Northern Brabant.


Thyri Alengia (The Kalmar Union)

Thyri, Queen of Álengiamark (1422-1459)

Álengiamark - Brynja I dies. Thyri succeeds.

Naples - The city of Naples finally falls to Aragonese forces reuniting it with its hinterland. Peter IV is crowned King of Naples.


Aragon - Peter IV dies. His daughter Joanna I is accepted by the nobles in Catalonia. However, Aragon's woolly succession laws allow her cousins James and Martin to claim Naples and Sicily-Sardinia respectively. A revolt breaks out in Majorca to compound her problems.

Henry III Anglia (The Kalmar Union)

Henry III, King of Anglia (1423-1437)

Anglia - Charles IV dies. Henry III succeeds.

Gothenland - Christopher is removed by forces loyal to the Piast scion Magdelena. Her husband Karl Tott, himself a wealthy landowner, defeats the remaining loyalists at the Battle of Hallesaker. Christopher is sent to live in Bohemia.


Elizabeth Viken (The Kalmar Union)

Elizabeth, Queen of Viken and Svealand (1424-1443)

Viken- Wizlaw IV dies. His only legitimate child Elizabeth inherits Viken-Svealand-Rugia.


Eric VII Den (The Kalmar Union)

Eric VII, King of Denmark (1426)

Denmark - Eric VI dies. His son Eric VII succeeds him. However, he dies after only three months on the throne.

With support of the Danish nobles, who are eager to avoid a civil war whilst Pomerania is threatened by the Empire, Elizabeth is allowed to continue to reign in 'Greater Denmark' as regent (not Queen) on behalf her young son Eric.

That makes her Queen of Viken and Svealand, High Queen of Norway, Regent of Denmark, Princess of Rugia, Duchess of Lade, Estonia, Pomerania and Finland.

Gothenland - Magdelena dies. Her son Nils, already crowned joint-king in 1424, succeeds.

Hordaland - Eric V dies. Magnus V succeeds.

Sigismund I Luxem (The Kalmar Union)

Sigismund I, King of Luxembourg, Hungary and Bohemia and Holy Roman Emperor (1426-1437)

Luxembourg, Hungary and Bohemia - Charles II dies. He is succeeded by Sigismund I. It will take another five years before he is crowned Emperor, however.


Francia - Arles is driven out of Lorraine by Burgundy, who then follow up into Swabia as part of their long off and on Swabian War.

France outlaws Charles of Bar, essentially annexing the duchy, and moves its armies forward into Lorraine.

Scotland - James III dies. He is succeeded by David V.


Bar - With spiritual and military guidance from Joanna of Wantzenau, the French are removed from Bar.



Eric VIII Den (The Kalmar Union)

Eric VIII, King of Denmark and Svealand (1426-1478)

Scandinavia - By the Treaty of Kalmar Elizabeth abdicates in Denmark in favour of Eric VIII. Viken-Rugia-Svealand and all related territories recognise Eric as the rightful heir. Hordaland and Gothenland accept the terms and form a defensive alliance with Greater Denmark, acknowledging Eric as their overlord.

The 'Kalmar Union' is created.

Bohemia - The Bar War ends with the Battle of Troyes. Joan is sent eastward to inspire the Catholic populace of Bohemia to resist the Hussites. Instead she merely splits the army and goes some way to unite the two opposing Hussite camps.


Wessex - William III dies. Edward V succeeds.


Leifia - Both Vinland and Álengiamark, after a long period of indecision, pledge allegiance to the Kalmar Union and send representatives to the third council at Oslo.


Bohemia - The Utraquists and the Taborites fall into civil war over whether to accept peace.

Hordaland - Magnus V dies. Eric VI succeeds him.


Anglia - Anglian nobles raise an army to 'bring the king back to his senses'. Henry III has been ruling in an increasingly high-handed matter refusing to meet the Witenage half-way on various matters. He is captured and imprisoned.


Richard I Anglia (The Kalmar Union)

Richard I, King of Anglia (1437-1451)

Anglia - After drawn-out discussions Henry III agrees to restore justice and 'good law' to Anglia. However he dies amid his release. His brother Richard I succeeds him.

Gothenland - Nils dies. He is succeeded by his son Karl VI.

Matthew Luxem (The Kalmar Union)

Matthew, King of Luxembourg, Hungary and Bohemia and Holy Roman Emperor (1437-1444)

Luxembourg, Hungary and Bohemia - The Luxembourg Emperor Sigismund dies. Matthew succeeds him. He will often be at odds with his Hungarian nobles and he directs much of his energy there.


Bohemia - The radical Taborite army is defeated at the Battle of Jesenek. This opens the way for pacification of Bohemia.


Álengiamark - After numerous revolts and minor skirmishes Álengiamark follows the Vinland model and the crown takes over all remaining pagan temple land (chiefly in the Southern Nanticoke and Chesapeake territories). As there is no second chamber in Álengiamark's Althing the land becomes the direct responsibility of the monarch opening accusations of toleration and heresy.


Denmark - Elizabeth dies. Eric VIII succeeds her in the remaining territories.

Leon - Ferdinand VI dies. Alfonso X succeeds him.


John II Luxem (The Kalmar Union)

John II, King of Luxembourg, Hungary and Bohemia (1444-1478)

Luxembourg, Hungary and Bohemia - Matthew dies. His son John II succeeds him. However, he will never succeed in gaining the Imperial throne.

Holy Roman Empire - Frederick of Bavaria secures a relatively speedy recognition as Holy Roman Emperor (as Frederick III).


Naples - James I dies. His son James II succeeds.


Anglia - Lords rebel against Richard I's insistence on maintaining the Luxembourg alliance at punishing cost to Anglia's treasury.


Anglia - King Richard I succumbs to fits of madness and his wife and brother form a regency over the kingdom, ending the rebellion against him.



Britannia - Anglia and Man both sign the Treaty of Kalmar. They do not, however, agree to Eric VIII's overlordship.

Aragon - Joanna I dies. John III succeeds.

Holy Roman Empire - Frederick of Hapsburg is elected Emperor (as Frederick IV).

Scotland - David V dies. His cousin James IV succeeds him, restoring the House of Moray to the throne.


William I Anglia (The Kalmar Union)

William I, King of Anglia (1451-1486)

Anglia - Richard I dies. His brother William I succeeds.


Jakobina II (The Kalmar Union)

Jakobina II, Queen of Vinland (1453-1502)

Vinland - Hafdis IV dies. Jakobina II succeeds her.

France - John III dies. Louis XII succeeds.


Man - Kenneth, King of Man dies, the only heir is Prince Owen, who is 2. In response, the title of High King of Ireland is abolished and Ulster, Connacht and Munster declare themselves free of Manx control.


Anglia - William I oversteps his powers and several lords rebel. This will begin the wider War of the Lions which, though beginning as a civil war, will drag in Wessex, Scotland and the Kalmar Union.


Man - Prince Owen dies, aged just 4. With no close relatives, Hordaland claims the throne, and sends its considerable navy into the Manx Sea to back up the claim.

Adalbjorg II Alengia (The Kalmar Union)

Adalbjorg II, Queen of Álengiamark (1459-1463)

Álengiamark - The Bible is translated into Álengsk by Jón Irronsson. He begins work on Quiripi version but is captured and burnt at the stake in St Hafdiss for heresy.

Thyri dies. Adalbjorg II succeeds him.



Tawantinland - The Álengsk explorer Bjarni Okwesson discovers the southern route into the Roasjoinn. The Okwesson Strait (OTL Straits of Magellan) are named after him.

Aragon - John III. His brother James IV succeeds.


Elin V Alengia (The Kalmar Union)

Elin V, Queen of Álengiamark (1463-1502)

Álengiamark - Adalbjorg II dies. Elin V succeeds.

Tawantinland - On his third voyage, Bjarni Okwesson attempts to reach the 'Southern Continent' but is forced to turn back by his crew without sighting land.


Anglia - The War of the Lions is concluded.


Wessex - Edward V dies. Edgar III succeeds.

Poland - The one-time king of Gothenland, Christopher Lejonbalk, dies leading a fool-hardy attempt to usurp the Polish throne.

Naples - James II dies. His brother Martin I succeeds.


Gothenland - Karl VI dies. He is succeeded by Karl VII.

Scotland - James IV dies. Alexander IV succeeds him.


Hordaland - Eric VI dies. Olaf VI succeeds.



Leon - Alfonso X dies. His daughter Eleanor II succeeds him.


Holy Roman Empire - Frederick IV dies. The imperial throne will not be filled again until 1484.


Sigismund II Luxem (The Kalmar Union)

Sigismund II, King of Luxembourg, Hungary, Bohemia and Anglia and Holy Roman Emperor (1478-1502)

Luxembourg, Hungary and Bohemia - John II dies. Sigismund II succeeds.

Christopher I Den (The Kalmar Union)

Christopher I, King of Denmark and Svealand (1478-1485)

Denmark- Eric VIII dies. Christopher I succeeds.


Hordaland - Olaf VI dies. Olaf VII succeeds.


Wessex - Edgar III dies. William IV succeeds.


France - Louis XII dies. His cousin Henry II of Orleanais succeeds though his claim on the throne will be challenged, repeatedly, by Auvergne.


HRE - Sigismund II ends the long interregnum and is crowned Emperor in Rome on Christmas Day.


Magnus Cropped

Eric IX, King of Denmark, Svealand and Anglia (1485-1509)

Denmark- Christopher I dies, falling overboard, drunk, into the Øresund. Eric IX succeeds. His succession is met with a revolt in Svealand.


William II Anglia (The Kalmar Union)

William II, King of Anglia (1486-1493)

Anglia - William I dies. William II succeeds.


Naples - Martin I dies. His son James III succeeds.

Italia - Venice annexes Fruli starting the 'Great Venetian War' which will draw in various European states.


Aragon - James IV dies. John IV succeeds.



Leon - Eleanor II dies. Her son Ferdinand VII succeeds her beginning the House of Aviz.


Anna I (The Kalmar Union)

Anna I, Regent of Anglia (1493-1517)

Anglia and HRE - William II dies childless. His sister Anna of Norfolk is unacceptable to the nobles of Brabant, Hainault and Zealand under the terms of Salian Law (which forbids inheritance by females). The War of Anglian Succession begins.

Eric IX of Denmark claims the throne as second cousin (but closer by blood) and begins to mobilise the Kalmar Union to regain it. Sigismund II (Duke of Luxembourg, King of Hungary, King of Bohemia and Holy Roman Emperor) meanwhile claims the throne as first cousin (closest male relative) and as Holy Roman Emperor hopes to bring Northern France under its authority. It is as though the [Estridssons and the Luxembourgs] have both stopped swatting the flies and are to fight the wolf at the throat instead. The fight is not an inconsiderable one. It is a struggle for the right to rule the world.

The Anglian nobles choose Eric as their preferred claimant and allow his cousin Anna of Norfolk to be regent until he can secure it.

This war will devastate much of Northern Germany, Pomerania, Bohemia and the Low Countries while bankrupting Denmark and much of the Kalmar Union.

Danish and Gothenlandic troops move South to threaten Luxembourgoise Brandenburg and ultimately Bohemia. They ally with the Luxembourg's chief rivals, the Bavarian Wittelsbachs.

Leifia - The Great Northern War.

The long shift of fur trade toward Quebec has enriched Algonquinland and created a deep seated rivalry between it and Vinland. Following a clash at Ottawa, which ends in a massacre of outlying Vinlandic trading settlements, Vinland shore forts fire on Algonquin trading ships as they enter Ontario Vatnin. The Algonquins capture Konunglegursaey after a bloody and devastating blockade, effectively splitting Vinland in two and cutting Fjallasay off from assistance. The war in Western Vinland (Hafsvaedaland) is characterised by long yearly seiges of Karontoborg and other major towns. To the East there are regular naval raids. The Passamaquoddy army strikes against Quebec but are routed at the Battle of Pohenegamook. The death of their King three months later effectively takes them out of the war and they sue for peace. Abernaki forces are similarly crushed trying to cross to the Northern shore. However, they and Six Nation allies comprehensively occupy the southern shore. Álengiamark is largely unable to assist. However, the Earl of Ontario provides supplies and also a link to keep the two halves of Vinland in contact with each other.


Gothenland - Karl VII dies. Svante I succeeds.

HRE- The siege of Prague is lifted but the Imperial counterattack toward Pomerania becomes bogged down amidst Sorbian hostility. Hungarian troops devastate Wittelsbach Saxony.


HRE- Leaving Pomerania to be defended by Gothenland, Denmark moves against Luxembourg itself only to be pinned down at Bremen. Meanwhile, the Wittelsbach army fails to capture Prague.

Byzantine Empire - The second to last Turkish Beylik state falls to the Imperial army. Only the small state of Turkiye remains, as a Byzantine client, but it inherits the title of 'Sultan' nonetheless.


Scotland - Alexander IV dies. His son James V succeeds.


Hordaland - Hordaland annexes the Faroe Islands 'protecting' them from Wessex.

The Kalmar Union Timelines
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