Alternate History

1300-1399 (The Kalmar Union)

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Poland - Przemsyl II, the unifier of Poland, dies. Wenceslaus II of Bohemia, already King of Bohemia and Duke of Krakow and Przemsyl's son-in-law, succeeds.


Wessex - Edward IV dies. Robert II succeeds.

Hafdis III (The Kalmar Union)

Hafdis III, Queen of Vinland (1301-1320)

Vinland - Kristjana III dies. Hafdis III is crowned.

Holy Roman Empire - After several years of war Count Henry VII of Luxembourg is elected Holy Roman Empire, beginning the sharp ascent of the dynasty.

Hungary - Andrew III dies. Wenceslaus II of Bohemia-Poland is proclaimed by nobles in Slovakia and Buda as king. This is principally for the sake of his young son (the future Wenceslaus III) as he is betrothed to Andrew's only child, Anna. His rule is opposed vehemently by Otto IV of Bavaria and Charles of Bezier.

Pietro III d'Aragón

Peter III, King of Aragon (1301-1320)

Aragon - James II dies. His son Peter III succeeds.


Viken - Wizlaw II dies. Sambor succeeds in Rugia but is never recognised in Viken, mainly due to arguments with the Bishop of Oslo.

Saaremaa - As Svealandic control ebbs away from the Baltic Saaremaa grows in importance. Denmark rewards their loyalty and support in the war against Livonia with additional Estonian islands and cedes control of the Bishopric of Osel. This gives it overlordship in the mainland county of Laane.

Svealand - Magnus III is deposed by Eric VIII in Svealand.

France - Louis IX dies. Louis X succeeds.


Man - Sigurd III of Man dies. Haakon succeeds, though has to fight his half-brothers for the throne.


Wizlaw III Viken (The Kalmar Union)

Wizlaw III, King of Viken (1304-1325)

Viken - Sambor dies. Wizlaw III inherits Rugia and Viken. He marries Catherine of Svealand, Magnus III's only heir.

Gothenland - John II dies. His brother Karl IV succeeds. All four of John's children will rule Gothenland over the next 25 years.

Naples - John I dies. Charles II succeeds.


Svealand - Eric VIII is deposed by Magnus III.

Poland, Bohemia & Hungary - Wenceslaus II dies. All of his territory proclaims his son Wenceslaus III as his successor but he is only 15 and his authority rapidly begins to crumble.

Only partially recognized in Hungary anyway, many nobles switch their allegiance to Otto IV of Bavaria or Charles Bezier. Before the year is out Wenceslaus renounces the crown of Hungary breaking off his engagement to Anna of Hungary, and is now rarely considered in the official king lists.


Poland & Bohemia - Wenceslaus III dies at the age of 16. His brother-in-law, Henry is proclaimed king of Bohemia however is forced to fight Rudolph of Hapsburg for the throne for three years. Poland meanwhile lapses back into civil war between the Piast dukedoms.

Leon - Eleanor I dies. Her son Ferdinand IV succeeds.


Svealand - Magnus III retakes Finland, reuniting Svealand's territory.



Henry I Anglia (The Kalmar Union)

Henry I, King of Anglia (1310-1347)

Anglia - Charles III dies. Henry I succeeds.

Bohemia - The last Premyslid heir to Bohemia; Wenceslaus III's younger sister, Elizabeth, marries John of Luxembourg.

Hungary - The son of the King of Naples, Charles, conquers Buda finally deposing Otto of Bavaria (Bela V). The Bezier family now holds land on both sides of the Adriatic incurring the displeasure of Byzantium and Venice.


Svealand - Magnus III dies. He is succeeded by Eric VIII's son Carl I.


Portugal - Portuguese traders attempting to sail directly to Vinland discover the Azores.

Leifia - A general famine hits Leifia. It lasts for 8 years, weakening most nations East of the Mississippi.

Vinland - Start of the 'Long Althing' in Vinland to reform government. Eventually the Althing expands the number of counties represented to include Fjallasay and Konunglegursaey, and to better represent growing population centres. A second house is introduced for the nobles and church for the settlement of disputes.


Hordaland - Eric II of Hordaland dies, the last of the House of Maddad. He is succeeded by his cousin Olaf V from the Gothenlandic House of Sverker.

Man - The Union of Leinister and Man is enacted by the Manx Tynwald. Thereafter the title of Princess of Leinister is given to the ruling family's highest ranking female member.


Holy Roman Empire - The Luxembourg Emperor Henry VII dies. The Imperial title goes to the Wittelsbach Louis IV while Luxembourg is inherited by John I, adding it to his Bohemian lands.

Gothenland - Karl IV dies. His brother Eric I is crowned.


Northern Europe - Extremely heavy rain ruins harvest across much of Europe. The Great Famine of 1315-22 begins.


Gothenland - Eric I dies. The last of John II's children, Sophia, is crowned alongside her Polish husband, John III.


Gothenland - Olaf V of Hordaland attempts to invade Gothenland to claim the throne. He fails however.



Kristjana IV (The Kalmar Union)

Kristjana IV, Queen of Vinland (1320-1352)

Vinland - Hafdis III dies. Kristjana IV is crowned.

Poland - Wladyslaw I succeeds in being recognized as King of Poland.

Alifonso IV d'Aragón

James III, King of Aragon (1320-1367)

Aragon - Peter III dies and is succeeded by his son James III.


Finland - In an effort to stop the slow erosion of the Duchy of Finland at the hands of Novgorod and shore up his own support there, Carl I signs the Treaty of Noteborg with them. This treaty effectively makes Northern Karelia and Lappland a no-man's land.

Cnut VII Den (The Kalmar Union)

Cnut VII, King of Denmark (1323-1333)

Denmark - Eric IV dies. Cnut VII succeeds.

Wessex - Robert II dies. Alix succeeds as the last of the Blois.


Olaf the Great

Olaf III, King of Viken, Svealand & Holy Roman Emperor (1325-1383)

Viken - Wizlaw III dies. Olaf III the Great succeeds. He is widely revered as a tactical and military genius.


Poland - Disputes with the Teutonic Knights, and continued disruption from John III of Gothenland, lead to the Polish-Teutonic War, primarily over Pomerelia, but it also drags in John I of Bohemia who (like John III) still claims the Polish throne.



Louis XI, King of France (1328-1359)

France - Louis X dies. Louis XI succeeds.


Gothenland - Queen Sophia dies, ending Gothenland's native Sverker dynasty. John III continues to reign in his own name however.



Leon - Ferdinand IV dies in a noble-led revolt. His cousin Juana succeeds.


Man - Haakon dies. His son Sigurd IV inherits all the Manx territories without any problems.

Gothenland - John III dies. His son Karl V is crowned.

Hungary - Charles I dies. John I succeeds.


Svealand - Olaf III of Viken proclaims Carl I's rule in Svealand unlawful and invades with Gothenlandic allies. By the terms of the treaty of Uppsala Olaf will inherit Svealand on Carl I's death.

Eric V Den (The Kalmar Union)

Eric V, King of Denmark (1333-1372)

Denmark - Canute VII dies. Eric V succeeds.

Poland - Wladyslaw I dies. His son Casimir III succeeds.


Svealand - Carl I dies leaving Olaf to inherit the kingdom and to fight his rivals descended from Queen Karin and Knut Birgersson's daughters to secure it.

Leifia - Islamic traveller Ibn Rasid visits the courts of the major Leifian kingdoms before heading on to the Mexica. He finds Isafjordhur and St. Hafdiss small and uncultured compared to Yorvik or even Reykjavik but impressed by the hard working people.


Gothenland - Karl V dies. His brother Premyslas succeeds.



Hordaland - Olaf V dies. He is succeeded by Eric IV.

Leifia - On his return Ibn Rasid presents Queen Kristjana IV with three Llamas and to Queen Thorey II a full suit of Jaguar Warrior armour.

Portugal - Portuguese sailors attempting to reach Leifa, find Verão (OTL Bermuda).


Elin III

Elin III, Queen of Álengiamark (1341-1387)

Álengiamark - Thorey II dies. Elin III is crowned.


Svealand - Olaf III is crowned in Birka. He will campaign over the next three years to crush a revolt in Finland, make wholesale revisions to the treaty of Noteborg and to expand Svealand northwards into Norrland.

Leon - Juana is forced to abdicate in favour of her son Peter I.


Leifia - The first sailors arrive from Portugal via Verão Island in improved caracals. The 'Southern' route is open but service for the next century is very patchy. Approximately 60% of all ships sent by this route never arrive.


Charles I Luxem (The Kalmar Union)

Charles I, King of Bohemia, Count of Luxembourg (1346-1374)

Luxembourg/Bohemia - John I dies at the battle of Monthermé. Charles I succeeds him.

Luxembourg - The Battle of Monthermé (9th June, 1346) sees the defeat of the Luxembourgois-French army by the Anglians. John I of Bohemia is killed and his son Wenceslaus is captured, as is Louis IX of France.


Henry II Anglia (The Kalmar Union)

Henry II, King of Anglia (1347-1390)

Anglia - Henry I dies. Henry II succeeds. On his maternal grandfather's death Henry inherits Brabant.

Europe - The Black Death is first recorded in Taurica (OTL Crimea).


Europe - The Black Death ravages Europe. While Iberia, France, Italy are devastated the Empire, Britannia and Scandinavia lose some 30% of their populations.

Poland, Lithuania, Hordaland and the Isles, Lade, Finland, the Estonias, and Rugia escape major epidemics.


Naples - Charles II dies. His son Charles III succeeds.



Leifia - The Black Death reaches Leifia. Some believe it came via the Azores, others via Iceland & Greenland.

Vinland and Álengiamark are both hit hard, as are most of the Magna Leifia nations.

Population of Magna Leifia is cut by an estimated 30-40%. In highly populated Mexica it is believed to be even higher.

Greenland reaches the limit of its power. As the black death decimates its population the climate has changed, making the island much colder. Trade routes shifting southwards removes most of the passing trade as well. Hordaland and Vinland vie for ownership.


HRE - Olaf III of Viken invades Thuringia in the first steps of a campaign to be crowned King of Germany.

Geirfrithur (The Kalmar Union)

Geirfrithur, Queen of Vinland (1352-1355)

Vinland - Kristjana IV dies. Geirfrithur is crowned.


Gothenland - Premyslas dies. His son Eric II is crowned.


HRE - By common consent Olaf III is elected King of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor elect.

Terra Mariana (Livonia) and Prussia become principalities of the Empire once more. The Archbishop of Riga and the Grandmaster of the Teutonic Order become Electors.

Conflict between Danish Estonia, Saaremaa and Livonia comes a virtual standstill as a result.

Olaf's overriding desire is to reunite the lands of Charlemagne.

Wessex - Alix dies. Her cousin William, Duke of Somerset is declared king.


Snaedis II (The Kalmar Union)

Snaedis II, Queen of Vinland (1355-1390)

Vinland - The Great Stave church at Fjallasay is finished. Geirfrithur dies. Snaedis II is crowned queen of Vinland.

Álengiamark - Continued unrest in Álengiamark's Unami territory pushes the country to the brink. It is unable to reform its Althing due to its massive non-Norse population unwilling to give up any privileges. The vast possessions of the earls therefore remain mostly outside of the Althing system and are subject to martial law and largely untaxable.

Leifia - Following the Black Death and its frequent re-eruptions a general cult of 'Death' grips Magna Leifia. The Mexica gods spread in popularity west of the Mississippi. The Great Stave church at Fjallasay even receives an altar dedicated to Xoloti and Coatilcue for travelling merchants, alongside one for Hel.


Hordaland - Eric IV dies. Sigurd III is crowned king of Hordaland.


The Rus' - The Golden Horde descends into civil war allowing Tver, Vladimir, Moscow and Novgorod to reassert their independence.

Philip V of France

Hugh II, King of France (1359-1364)

France - Louis XI dies. Hugh II succeeds.



Leon - Peter I dies. His brother Ferdinand V succeeds.


Anglia - In return for Imperial assistance with Liege and France Henry agrees Anglia's continental territory is subject to the Holy Roman Empire, adding Zeeland to the list of counties ruled and more importantly, raising the County of Flanders to a Duchy and Electorate.


Karel V van Frankrijk

John II, King of France (1364-1388)

France - Hugh II dies under suspicious circumstances. His brother John II is crowned.


Gothenland - Eric II dies. His son John IV succeeds him.


Vinland - A large peasant army captures Karantóborg protesting taxes and government. Snaedis II sends a force to force the Althing to grant her taxation.

Pietro IV d'Aragón

John I, King of Aragon (1367-1369)

Aragon - James III dies. His brother John I succeeds.


Naples - Charles III dies. Louis I succeeds.

Vinland - The peasant's revolt falls apart as a large government army approaches. The army goes on to campaign in the Sauklands. The new lands are quickly parceled up between earls, old and new, the church and the crown.


Chuan I d'Aragón

John I, King of Aragon (1369-1402)

Aragon - John I dies. His son John II succeeds.



Poland - Casimir III dies. He has left no male heirs so, as had been long-agreed, his brother-in-law John (Jan) I of Hungary is crowned.


Wessex - William I dies. William II succeeds.


HRE - Finally crushing Florentine power at the battle of Vernio, Olaf restores Imperial authority south of the Alps. Olaf is re-crowned by the pope in Rome on Christmas Day.

Valdemar II Denmark (The Kalmar Union)

Valdemar II, King of Denmark (1372-1407)

Denmark - Eric V dies. Valdemar II succeeds.


Brandenburg - Margrave Otto II sells the Electorate of Brandenburg to the Luxembourg family.


Luxembourg/Bohemia - Charles I dies. He is succeeded by the future Emperor, Wenceslaus I.



Aragon - Aragonese forces succeed in capturing Sicily and Athens from the weakening Bezier lords. However the conquest of the rest of the Kingdom of Naples will take another forty years.


Poland & Hungary - John/Jan I of Poland and Hungary dies. He has no male heir and has spent a considerable portion of his reign bargaining with his nobles to allow his daughter Adelaide to inherit his considerable empire. This had come at the cost of automatic inheritance. Both kingdoms have prised the right of election out of their aging king. Hungary acquiesces to his dying wishes and Adelaide is crowned with the knowledge that her husband, Wenceslaus I of Luxembourg and their son will effectively rule them. Poland meanwhile refuses to be ruled in union again. The nobles elect another daughter, Jadwiga, as their 'king'.


Wizlaw IV Viken (The Kalmar Union)

Wizlaw IV, King of Viken & Svealand (1383-1424)

HRE - Olaf III dies, directing war against France, hoping to reunite Charlemagne's empire.

The union of Olaf's remaining territory remains stable and his son Wizlaw IV inherits.


Álengiamark - The Great Unami Revolt. Stoked by their independent neighbours, the Eastern Erie and the Haudenosaunee revolt. As Álengiamark sends in its army to crush the rebellion it is invaded by the Kingdoms of Erie, Seneca and Cayuga. Vinland is busy dealing with Hafsvaedaland and cannot respond.


HRE - Wenceslaus of Luxembourg is crowned King of Germany ending the civil war.

Poland - Jadwiga marries Jogaila, Grand Duke of Lithuania.

Álengiamark - The Susquehannock join in the continuing revolt.


Asthurdur II Alengia (The Kalmar Union)

Asthurdur II, Queen of Álengiamark (1388-1397)

Álengiamark - At the battle of Kristjanabae the Álengiamark army succesfully repels the joint Erie and Haudenosaunee armies but at the cost of losing 75% of its forces and a third of the nobility.

Queen Elin III dies, apparently of heartbreak after the death of her 3 brothers in the battle. Using the interregnum the Quiripi insist they will cede from Álengiamark if peace is not sought and refuse to acknowledge any of the throne's claimants.

Leifia -First Congress of Fjallasay.

At Fjallasay representatives of 10 Leifia nations and 3 European nations meet to arrange a general peace of the Álengiamark lands as well as to define borders.

  • The Erie are confirmed as separate nation, as are the Susquehannock.
  • The Haudenosaunee join with their northern neighbours to form the Confederation of Six Nations.
  • The Southern Unami remain a part of Álengiamark as does the Earldom of Ontario. Both are split into counties to be represented at the Althing.
  • The remaining old Aniyunwiyan lands are given freedom but they quickly rejoin the rump of their empire.
  • Vinland's ownership of Greenland is recognised by Denmark (who promise to prevent Hordaland from reprisals).
  • Vinland's claim on Hafsvaedaland is reconfirmed. Iceland is contracted to help pacify and settle the area.
  • Denmark presents its flag and banner to the church at Fjallasay. Both Vinland and Álengiamark soon have their own versions. Blue with white cross for Vinland, Green with white cross for Álengiamark.
  • Portugal is confirmed as having full control of the Southern route, as well as their ownership of Verão Island and their fort on the mainland.
  • The northern borders are deliberately left vague.
  • Asthurdur II is crowned queen of Álengiamark on the final day of the congress.


Aragon - Italian pirate lords capture Aragon's Greek property including Athens and accept Byzantine protection, frustrating Aragon's attempts to reclaim the lands.

Couronnement de Charles VI le Bien-Aimé

Philip IV, King of France (1388-1414)

France - John II dies. Philip IV succeeds.


Leon - Ferdinand V dies. His son Henry I succeeds.



Charles IV Anglia (The Kalmar Union)

Charles IV, King of Anglia (1390-1423)

Anglia - Henry II dies. Charles IV succeeds.

Kristjana V (The Kalmar Union)

Kristjana V, Queen of Vinland (The Kalmar Union) (1390-1405)

Vinland - Snaedis II dies. Succeeded by Kristjana V.

Hordaland - Sigurd III dies. Eric V succeeds.


Vinland - The pope raises Fjallasay to Archbishophric with authority over all of North-West Leifia. However the papal emissary is appalled by the concurrent worship of pagan gods that is occurring in the cathedral and in many other churches in Vinland. His report hangs the threat of excommunication over Kristjana V. She makes efforts to close the pagan chapels throughout Vinland but it is poorly executed, often without the backup of the army, and only leads to unrest. That she is seen as a distant figure (she never leaves Fjallasay) and ignores Isafjordhur's Althing only makes things worse.


Vinland - Vinland descends into civil war as Eikland & Vinland rebel against the perceived tyranny of Kristjana's Fjallasay-run government. Her cousin Asdis is elected queen of Vinland by the Althing at Isafjordhur and receives Eikland's support.

In Europe the war is shown as a struggle between Christianity (Kristjana) and Paganism (Asdis) and support generally falls on Kristjana's side. Álengiamark is more or less completely Christianised so shows little sympathy for Asdis.

Pope Boniface IX ignores the previous excommunication and urges crusade on Kristjana's behalf. The ten-year crisis sees rival navies clash in the Breidurras, repeated invasions by both sides into Algonquin lands, Icelandic armies raiding indiscriminately throughout the region. The main fur trade moves east to Quebec as Fjallasay becomes too dangerous for merchants.

Hungary - Queen Adelaide dies, ending Bezier rule in Hungary. Her husband Emperor Wenceslaus is, by common consent affirmed as sole ruler of the kingdom, however the nobles prise various rights out of him.

Milan - The vastly wealthy Gian Galeazzo Visconti buys the title of Duke of Milan from Emperor Wenceslaus.


Elin IV Alengia (The Kalmar Union)

Elin IV, Queen of Álengiamark (1397-1402)

Álengiamark - Asthurdur II dies. Succeeded by Elin IV.


Poland - Jadwiga dies. Her husband Jogaila (Wladyslaw II) is crowned King of Poland in his own right beginning a full union of Poland and Lithuania.

The Kalmar Union Timelines
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