The 12th and 11th Centuries are the second section of the Iron Age.

Bronze Age Pt. 10 and Iron Age Pt. 1:
1400-1201 BCE
Iron Age Pt. 2
1200-1001 BCE
Iron Age Pt. 3:
1000-801 BCE


Egyptian-Hittite War

Userkare had continued in the role of the stabilizing Pharaoh of the Egyptian Empire. He was known for setting up military outposts around the Empire, mainly near large towns our trade outpost that bordered unsettled territory. Learning from their previous mistakes with the Libyan tribe that swooped in to cause havoc for them. Though records show that during Userkare's reign showed a drastic decline of Libyan raids, mainly due to better patrols and protection of the border regions of the kingdom. Though his greatest achievement was pushing back the Hittite invasion of the Empire and the subsequent collapse of their empire. A rogue Hittite commander believed he would be able to take a portion of the Northern Levant from the Empire. Specifically counting on the fact they could not quickly reinforce the region fast enough to mount a counter offensive. Though the initial invasion was successful, the Hittite had not planned on a strange new tactic never seen. A beach landing. Userkare and his military advisors devised a plan to strike the Hittite in two places. An army marching from the south would face the Hittite invaders head on in conflict. Meanwhile two different groups would be launched from the island of Cyprus, launching a beach landing behind the invading Hittite forces, and the third group landing along the southern Anatolian coast. Marching straight to the Hittite capital of Hattusa. Both naval landings crippled the Hittite military as they were now the one's unable to launch a counter offensive against the Egyptians, as their forces were now separated by miles; and those small forces that banded to fight the invading Egyptians were brushed aside with ease. The Sacking of Hattusa would be added to another one of Egypt's finest accomplishments, as they had not only routed the Hittites, but also collapsed an empire that threatened their power in the region.

Stabilized Return

With the collapse of the Hittite Empire by the Egyptians, the future Pharaohs mainly Salitis and Zamonth, would focus on re-stabilizing the economy by cutting back a large part of the soldiers used in the war with the Hittites. These practice of raising an army during times of war and in states of civil unrest, then to cut back on them leaving the necessary soldiers to protect the empire at hand. Zamonth however would have to deal with an expansive king in Tiglath-Pileser I the then ruler of Assyria. Tiglath-Pileser I had made his move on the Hurrians taking large swaths of land from the smaller nation, and threatened to move into Anatolia. Although, before Zamonth could lower tensions between the Assyrians and Egyptians, he passed away leaving his son, Sakir-Har to rule the Empire.

Sakir-Har spent most of his reign trying to ease tensions with the Assyrian king, he was finally able to come to a compromise. Sakir-Har was able to broker a deal with the current Assyrian king, allowing the Assyrian traders use the same trade routes and freely set up shop within the Egyptian Empire. Although initially viewed as a great negative for the Empire, and a great victory for the Assyrians. The Egyptians later learn to allow competition to flow in the Empire. The following Pharaohs continued their attempts of pursued peace with the Assyrians by building the first embassy in a foreign nation to help further relations with the nation. The Egyptians would further extend a friendly hand to the successor nations of the once Hittite Empire.


Hittite Empire GU Labeled

1 - Mogola, 2 - Hittites, 3 - Arzawa, 4 - Biga, 5 - Phrygia, 6 - Bithynia, 7 - Pala, 8 - Armenian Tribes, 9 - Acem, 10 - Hattusa, 11 - Malatya, 12 - Isuwa, 13 - Alshe, 14 - Urartu, 15 - Northern Mycenaean Culture, 16 - Southern Mycenaean Culture, 17 - Minoan Mycenaean Culture

The Hittites fell into anarchy after their attack from Egypt, and was forced to split into many of it's former archaic provinces. Egypt set up three client states, named after large towns in the region. Eneti gained independence once more, and used its chance to have a much more solid army. The fact that Eneti died and then returned as a reformed state would be mentioned in the Jewish Torah years later. A small state in-between Eneti and the Egyptian clients had a hard time establishing true independence, as they had no true king. The Hittite Empire was able to hold onto a bit of land in southern Anatolia, where their capital was located (remember, the Hittites had to move south after the original formation of Eneti). Soon after the events that the map above portrays, Eneni absorbed Pala. Egypt also attacked Hattusa, and absorbed Acem. Many states on the western part of Anatolia began to consolidate and go to war with the other states. The Hittites tried their best to rise to power once more, but it would not go well for them.

Rest of the World

With the death of the Hittite Empire in Anatolia, the Hurrians and Assyrians were left to watch the Egyptian Empire regain their power and left a nation of such considerable size and power to collapse. Though one king of Assyria would go to test the Egyptian's self control for war. Tiglath-Pileser I was the one to test the Egyptian's control, as he pressed back into the Hurrian controlled city states once under Akkadian rule, and eventually pressing into Hurrian territory. Taking great swaths of land from the Hurrians in his conquest of the region. The Assyrians and Egyptians would clash along the borders, but neither nation wanted to suffer the effects of a war with one another, especially the Assyrians who knew they were out sized by the Egyptian forces. They faced tenuous relations with one another for many decades, until they brokered a deal with another to allow Assyrian merchants and trainers full access into Egyptian territory and not be restricted by the Egyptians. Meanwhile in China the Shang Dynasty ended when the last ruler Wu Ding died without producing a legitimate heir to the Shang Dynasty throne. A regency council was set up until the new ruler by the name Cheng of Zhou who later founds the Zhou Dynasty.

Grand Union World Map c. 1025 BCE

World c. 1025 BCE

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