|Early Golden Age:|
1892 (1139)-1948 (1195)
|Magnus the Great:|
1948 (1195)-2000 (1247)
|Two Hundred Years War:|
2000 (1247)-2029 (1276)
The reign of Magnus II was the peak of the Roman Golden Age, which took the Empire to a new high point in culture, civilization and technology. He far superseded even the achievements of his great-grandfather and has gone down in history as the greatest Emperor since Sapiens in the IVth Century. Even if not all the advancements of his rule can be attributed to him, his patronage of Roman scientists and education reforms created a firm new foundation for the future of European science.
Magnus was put on the throne at the age of 23, already full of plans in his head of how he was going to help the Empire. Coming onto the throne he immediately pushed the Senate to raise taxes for the upper-classes in preparation for his plans. Just a month later he got Congress to pass an act which called for the creation of a Ministry of Roads, which was dedicated to maintain the new higher standards of intercity and trans-city roads around the Empire. At the same time he subsidize both Municipal and Provincial government to help them to keep up with the new established standards. These improvements, which included a 0.5 meter tall concrete wall along all intercity roads 4 carriage widths or more across, were eventually completed towards the end of his rule, in 1241.
Magnus' reformation of the Ministry System between 1195 and 1212 was perhaps one his most significant streamlining of government affairs. In addition to the Ministry of Roads, 11 more Ministries were created by Magnus, adding up to a total of 80. Under his changes Praeministra (Ministers), the heads of each Ministry, became official observing members of the Senate, with no right to vote but with the power of Tacite, where they may call a silence at any time to make a speech and point something out to the rest of the Senate. The Emperor personally liked this new power and made certain to grant it to his position as well, occasionally making of use of it to the chagrin of the other Senators.
Several of the other founded Ministries included: Ministry of Electricity, for maintaining standards on electrical equipment and later electricity transportation; Ministries of Upper and Lower Education, leading organizations of Magnus' new education system, divided into Upper (Universalis) and Lower (Grammaticus); Minister of the Columbias, correspondent between the colonies and the Emperor and Ministry of Technology, advisory council to the government on recent technology and potential implications to the Empire.
The two aforementioned ministries of education were created as part of the Emperor's Glorious Reform. The issue that was solved here was that the Empire had no formal public education system, and in fact nearly all children living outside of the cities received no education whatsoever, except for what they learned from their family. Furthermore, even many people in the city couldn't afford education for themselves or their children, and many of the crafts and knowledge that people acquired was achieved through apprenticeship programs or again from their families. All in all, only about 19% of Romans could attest to having attended a school of any kind.
Starting in 1197, Magnus funded the construction of 14 Grammatici in Rome, facilities which provided education from the ages of 3 to 16. All costs for these schools, once completed, were taken upon by the government, allowing anyone with a Roman citizenship to send their children there for free. The same year, he held a dinner with some of the heads of various Academies around the Empire, and managed to convince many of them to go into the business of creating their own private Grammatici, thereby helping to enlarge the Roman private education system as well. Then, over the course of the next 25 years, Magnus worked to create thousands of public schools in every single major city, and many minor cities, all across the entire Empire. Though never able to take the time to visit, he even commissioned for the construction of a Universalis in the colonial city of New Rome.
These Universalis were another one of the marked features of Magnus' reforms. Before him, facilities known as Academies, such as the Architectural Academy in Florence and the Military Academy in Carthage were places of higher learning dedicated to the study of a particular subject. Magnus hit on the idea in 1197 that a single facility could instead provide joint educations for several, even dozens of these subjects, providing their students with a universal education of sorts. Beginning construction just outside the borders of Rome, in an area which his predecessor had cleared away an entire hill, Magnus ordered the construction of the Grammaticus Universalis, the first universal school. With the extensive use of slave labor, the main part of the University was completed in 1199 and the first students began to arrive. The GU houses 8 different academies, each provided a full education on a particular subject, for example "Philosophy" or "Law and Politics".
The next year Magnus and the two education ministries finished the Nova Doctrina Populare, the New Civic Education System, formally organization the independent schooling systems into an Imperial standard. All schools both public and private, and of course all Academies were obliged to follow this new system or be shut down. In short, the new order of things was that Roman children were to receive a general education from the age of 3 to 14, after which their Grammaticus was to give them specialized education on at least 4 subjects, to a maximum of 10. Following two years of this the child a Diploma Grammaticum, showing that they had passed all of their lower schooling. Then, the child can go into specialized education for whatever they are going to do later in life.
At this point not enough Academies or Universales had been built around the Empire yet and so many children would simply stop and go into apprenticeships again. However, they could now do so with far greater amounts of knowledge. Magnus wished to correct this and from 1200 to his death, Magnus managed to have more than 100 Universalis built, all providing low-cost Upper education to Romans from across the Empire. In the new order of Upper Education, students took 3 years of intensive and detailed education on between 1-5 subjects. From there they received their Diploma Scholaris in all the subjects they had completed and then had the option, usually if they were rich, to continue their education at an Academy and become a Doctor or essentially an "Expert" in some field. The amount of time to get their Diploma Doctore varied, but for things such Medicine, could take up to 7 years.
Next to his foundation of Universales, Magnus subsidized the creation of more than 60 dedicated Academies, which now were designed to provide expensive but more extensive education on a particular subject, and later provide Doctorates as well. As well, through his continued insistence, most Academies now hosted a Grammaticus, one which provided education on the same specific subject of the Academy, for instance Agriculture or Masonry. As for the poor, the farmers and such who would be much better off staying in the fields to help their family, the Emperor ensured that all public schools provided a quick education on language and philosophy from age 12-14. This allowed the poor to have an education whilst not greatly comprising their ability to provide for themselves.
His patronage for education did not stop at construction of schools and reforms, he was also a known sponsor for scientists working in Parisium, Alexandria and Carthage, even paying for this from his family's private treasury. Amazingly, not only did all of this spending not bring the state into debt, but his reorganization of the Empire actually resulted in a net profit by the end of his rule.
One of his favorite scientists to sponsor was the now famous Lucius Parellus Volta, a Gallian scientist working at the Electrical Academy in Parisium. To the shock and great pleasure of the scientific community, Volta came out with his two Magna Opi in 1210, first his Theory of Electrical Generation by Magnetic Induction and then his Theory of Electromagnetism in November of that same year. These two detailed journals finally provided an acceptable and verifiable explanation for the action of motors, and the newly invented generators. As well, Volta reasoned, generators were not very useful in the production of a direct current, the kind batteries used, and instead provided much better power when making alternating current. In his tests with one of the three working DC generators at the academy, and other tests with a makeshift AC generator, he found that there was less power loss over distances with AC and that it also had far more applications than the older DC.
Volta was also quite the polymath, and in 1211 he released his Tabula Typica de Elementarum, an educational table which organized the known elements at the time into rows and columns. Begun purely out of interest in 1204, Volta gradually realized he was on to something and in 1209 applied for a grant to further research what he was in the process of discovering. Although this violated the "1 grant per person" policy of the Academy, the Emperor personally intervened, allowing Volta to finish his table. Not only did this Periodic Table classify all the elements into groups with similar properties, and periods which followed through each group once, but he also left holes in his table where he predicted later undiscovered elements would later fit. Furthermore, he disproved the nature of water and limestone as distinct elements, and later in 1238, proved that air was made up of at least three different substances, one for breathing, one for plants and another which did neither but somehow made up more than half of its composition.
Anyway, with the theories of electromagnetism established, Volta set about building the first AC generator. Although it took him another three years after the development of his theories, he finally built his first prototype in late-1213. The device doubled the power production of the DC generators which were in use before, completely blowing all potential competition out of the water.
Since Volta managed to patent his new invention of the AC Generator in 1214, he had now set himself up to a life of great fortunes, since until his death he had sole rights to the use of the technology. In somewhat paranoid move however, he prohibited allowing the use of the device in research by other scientists, giving himself the sole right to advance the technology, and if anyone else did so, they had to forfeit the rights to him. This reflected his shrewd business style, the one thing which many have criticized him for. The problem here was that although he had the generator and the theory, large scale application was impossible with the device which he had.
After another three years of work, Volta created the first Waterwheel AC Generator in the river running by his villa in Lugdunensis. Using the electrical energy he was generating from the waterwheel, Volta powered a large ceiling fan in the main hall of his villa which cooled the room down noticeably on hot days. That same year, Volta was declared by Magnus II as Chairman of the newly built Societas Scholaris de Scientiae (Imperial Society of the Sciences), an organization founded at Volta's bequest which managed and discussed all scientific matters in the Empire.
The SSS was controlled by the Concilium Scientium, a board of the most highly respected scientists in the Empire, who were selected to their position by the current members of the board every New Years Day. Usually people applied for the position and the members either accepted them or put them on hold, but on certain rare occasions the Society suck out potential candidates itself. The Provisor (Chairman) was of course selected by the Imperial government, usually either the Emperor or Minister of Technology and then if he was accepted by the board, kept the position. Any other scientist could attend meetings of the SSS, by reserving a spot at any of their meetings, though as usual the board could reject a reservation. In any case, the entire goal of the Imperial Society was to stimulate scientific discussion and keep the Empire on the right track to advancement, very much like the OTL Royal Society of London.
Volta was now the most influential member of the Roman scientific community, both in rank and in terms of respect. Using his many contacts, he was able to convince four Gallian Senators to have one of his Waterwheel Generators built on their Villa properties, for a very high price of course. One of the biggest things which Volta had going for him was the cost of electricity at the time. Only huge guilds could afford it as batteries had been the only source. As a single generator was projected to be able to provide power for decades, Volta could put practically any price he desired on his product, which he did. Each of the units he sold, not including the waterwheel and wiring, cost around 9000 Dn, or ten times more than most Roman citizens made in a year.
Over the next 12 years, Volta had another 70 generators built at the villas of more of his friends in the Senate and he had been using many of the funds he was gaining in this to further his research into electricity. In 1224 for instance he developed a small electrical device which he theorized would be able to act as a kind of "gate" for the electricity. Consisting of two metal plates with a removable insulator between them, the device shocked Volta when he found out its actual use. Instead of stopping and releasing the electricity when the insulator was removed, it allowed the current to pass unhindered. Confused, he tried it with DC current instead, and whilst this did stop the current, it did not act as a gate as he expected. Over the next two years he discovered that the Condensatrum (Capacitor) responded to what he termed "electrical potential" differences, and could be made to store and later release a charge depending on these factors, acting kind of like a battery.
Inventions like the capacitor though were only a distraction, albeit a persistent one, from his primary work on the generator. By 1228 the technology had been greatly improved, and in the next year he had a deal with the resort town of Baiae near Neapolis to build his largest generator yet to heat some of the Thermae (Public Baths) which were so popular there. This time he tried out a Windmill design for his generator, something which required far larger magnets than he would have liked, bringing the generator cost up to about 28,000 Dn. That same year, at the insistence of a close friend in the Imperial Society, Volta created his own guild, Eletrika Generalis so that his family could continue to reap the benefits of his inventions even after he had died. Ironically, it was because of this action that his family would ultimately lose access to a lot of that money. However, the guild did allow him to pay his own people to build the devices and the wheels or mills for him, so it did have its advantages at the time.
GE built 14 Waterwheel generators near Parisium in 1230 providing almost 28,000 W of power to the the city. The next year 3 were built to supplement the Windmill in Baiae and then in one of the largest deals of his career, the Aegyptian Praetor commissioned for 22 generators to be built outside Alexandria in 1233. In general, the power provided by the generators was used by printing houses, electroplating industries and the all popular public bathing houses. The problem at the time though was that a lot of power was still being lost in bringing the electricity from the generators up to the cities. Even with large amounts of electrical insulation, energy was being lost as heat in the wire and nothing it seemed could be done to stop this.
Further construction projects stopped for the next two years whilst Volta worked on solving the problem. Right off the bat, he reasoned that the heating originated from the "movement of electrical fluid" in the wires and that since he had earlier discovered that the power generated was a product of the electrical current and the electrical potential, all he needed to do was lower the current whilst simultaneously increasing the voltage. Although the solution eluded him for all of 1234, mid-way through the next year he realized that it might lie in the number of wire loops used in the generators. After trying several combinations of wire in different places, he finally tried to loop wires around a metal ring and then pass the current onto a more looped wire on the opposite end. He realized that this was perfectly in line with his theory of electromagnetic induction. Volta had invented the first transformer.
Almost immediately Volta offered a "deal" on these new transformers, promising that they will significantly improve the amount of power that they'll have access to. Although the Governor of Lugdunensis in particular was skeptical of the scientist's intentions, everyone agreed that the pay-off was worth it and so the devices were installed at every power generator over the course of 1235. The next year GE built their second windmill generator, along with 6 waterwheel generators, this time north of the city of Mediolanum. Over the course of the next 5 years, Volta became the third richest man in the Empire, after the emperor and the head of the Printing House Guild. More than 90 waterwheel generators and 22 windmill generators were built for the cities of Londinium, Neapolis, Athens, Correlia and Ollisipo, providing huge boons to the local economies. Unfortunately in late-march of 1241, Volta was researching a new gas which he had discovered along with "empowering airs" when splitting water with electricity, a substance which he dubbed for the time being Aquas Materias Vegetas, what later scientists call "Protium". Anyway, he had a very large glass container filled with the gas which was accidentally knocked over by a slave of his bringing him some water to drink. The resulting explosion knocked him off his feet and gave him serious injuries, but worst of all, set his villa on fire. In only moments the burning building collapsed around him and he died in the rubble.
As was stated in his will, his body was buried in the Academia Imperia Scientiae which was completed in 1236 by Volta's own request, and served not only as the seat of the Societas Scholaris de Scientiae but also as a Universalis dedicated to the natural sciences. It was decided that he was to be buried in the main courtyard and a statue was to be built on top to honor his achievements. Known as the Throne of Volta, the statue shows the man himself seated on a marble and silver throne and holding a clear glass ball in his right hand to represent clarity gained through science.
This was not to say that all was well and good following his death, as the federal government of Rome was able to influence matters so that they "inherited" the entirety of Volta's estate, in particular the guild he had founded. His four children were given only about 20% of his wealth, which despite making up more than 12 million Denarii, was nothing compared to the wealth being generated, so to speak, by his company. Through the deals he had made with his customers, 30% of the money received from selling the electricity had to come back to General Electric. The government now had full use of his patents, and therefore his inventions and was already preparing itself to expand this new industry even before Volta's body had made it into the ground.
Emperor Magnus II was especially delighted by what the government was now capable of and ensured that within only a year the now government owned General Electric was building its generators again, with a new stipulation that the newly created Ministry of Energy had full management duties over all GE power generators and that 50% of all income garnered by them went to the Imperial Government. From that point up until the end of Magnus' reign, more than 160 waterwheel generators and 90 windmill generators were constructed and power was now being provided to over 25 cities.
The two Ministries within the jurisdiction of electrical generation were also working on the issue of long-distance power generation in order to bring the generators away from urban areas. In 1245 it was decided that wires were allowed to only extend along a roadway, and that when doing so must run through the small concrete walls on the edges of the roads. Though this necessitated rebuilding these walls to be open-able, it was agreed that it was the best option to not only maintain the security of the power grid, but to also stay to the interests of conservative Romans who would have objected to great big wires "getting in their way" so to speak. Also, in order to prevent the problem of arcing between wires, all lines on one side of the road provided power in one direction, whilst those on the other side brought it in the opposite direction and the concrete and wide space between them prevented an electrical field from forming.
As was always the case, an emperor making a lot of reforms meant there was a lot of money flowing out of the Empire's coffers and although the treasury was in no danger of emptying, Magnus was extremely concerned about leaving the economy in a sorry state and didn't want to take any chances. The obvious answer to this problem was of course war. A successful war not only meant that riches could be taken from the enemy, but the boost to the economy from the temporary increase in government spending meant that the economy would grow in the long run. However, Magnus wasn't willing to risk making any major enemies at the time and so he opted to start meddling in the affairs of Central Africa in 1204.
The entire region was primitive, by nearly any standards of the time, and mostly consisted of an assortment of warring tribes fighting each other and taking prisoners to ransom back for things like food or to use as labor, an idea they learned from the Romans to embrace more than they historically had. Therefore, a kind of slave trade existed in the lower eastern half of the continent, just south of the province of Somalia. The thing which the Roman government found especially marvelous was that what these tribes wanted most was to just survive and prosper as well as they could, and so all that they wanted were base resources like stone, food and livestock, something which the Romans had so much of they had been running surpluses for centuries. All the army had to do was go in and trade just enough of these things to last one tribe a year and they could get up to a hundred slaves at once. Back in Rome, these slaves could be sold for 800 to 3000 Dn each, making the government a mark-up of up to 500 Dn with every slave. Romans in Europe however were more bigotted than their Phoenician, Egyptian or Aramaic counterparts and so there was practically no market there for darker skinned slaves, meaning that the slaves bought in Africa could only be sold in the African and Arabian provinces. Eventually though, this bigotry let up a little bit and, for better or worse, European Romans from the 1500's onwards were willing to buy African Slaves.
As the African Slave Trade was accelerated by the Roman government, the Senate and Congress voted that by expanding the Empire into the East Africa Coastline they will be more easily able to transport goods and slaves back and forth. In this area the Romans were surprised to find one of the most advanced remaining African civilizations in the form of numerous port cities which traded with the Far-East. Through the influence of the Legion, both physically and through their reputation, Roman Governors were placed at the heads of many of these cities, starting with the annexation of Mvita (Mombasa) in 1220. The new territory was dubbed the province of Swahilium, and from its inception, never really become an integral part of the Empire. It has, from the beginning, been just a land of African cities controlled by Roman administrators. Although actual colonization of the area has been proposed for many centuries, few citizens were willing to move their except for the slave trade and the government was unwilling to pay for an enterprise which was most likely to end in pain and hardship.
By 1240 the slave population in North Africa was substantially larger than before and many of the newer ones were being bought by large mining and manufacturing guilds for use as labor. This a boom to the region which allowed it to keep up with the rest of the Empire which was at the same time starting to feel the positive influence of electricity. Aegyptus however was a special case. It was one of the only provinces to feel the effects of both electricity and an increase in slave labor and so was one of the provinces to feel the greatest increases in wealth in the coming century.
Meanwhile, in the New World, affairs went from unhindered prosperity to horror very quickly. The cities of New Rome and Colona were growing at incredibly fast rates and starting in 1209 colonists started to expand to the rest of the island of Hispaniola with the help of a supply line starting in New Rome. The net migration rate was standing at almost 50,000 people per year and the local economy was well above the Imperial average thanks to huge government subsidies towards helping out the region. However in 1215 things began to change.
Unbeknowst to Centuria XI, Legio XLII Colona, the group of natives they met in late-December of that year were unlike the others. Though many of the soldiers did attest that they were dressed a great deal differently than the others, in wearing actual clothes for one thing, they simply thought that maybe some of them were trying to adapt Roman customs to their own. In reality these were Mayan advance scouts part of the Mayan Navy looking for suitable land to expand into on the island. As the Romans not only looked nothing like other natives, but also had metal weapons and were clearly very organized, the scouts returned to their commanding officers hoping to relay this startling news to the government.
Within a few months the Mayan government decided that the best course of action was to evaluate the new enemy by sending a diplomatic team to begin relations. The idea failed utterly as the Romans ignored them like they did the other "primitive natives". Unable to approach anyone who wasn't a Roman soldier, the Mayans gave up and returned to their cities, deciding now that the Romans were just another group of barbarians that would be dealt with once the main army arrived. This state of affairs did not last long and in 1221 the same Legio XLII Colona discovered the Mayan city of Greater Kisqeya, a settlement that had a population of almost 70,000 people and which was the administrative center of the Mayan colony. Although the Dux of the Legion was extremely surprised to see such a large and clearly urbanized town in the New World, the commanders under him managed to goad him into looting the city rather than investigating by citing the clearly gold plates just over the city's formal entrance.
Once the entire city was burned to the ground, and all of its population either killed or expelled, the news was simply reported to the Praetor of the province and then affairs continued as they had before. Meanwhile the Mayan government was not happy one bit. Tens of thousands of its own citizens, Mayan citizens, had just been killed by some especially haughty barbarians. This could never stand and there was an overwhelming public opinion to do something about it. However, the Mayan navy was relatively small and there was no way to transport that many troops to such a far away island in such a short time. Therefore from 1221 to 1227, the Mayans focused on building up the number of ships which they could use, along with improving existing shipyards, and evacuating the many cities that they had on the island. The Conglomerate was not going to tolerate these foreigners any further.
The Conglomerate Standing Army finally arrived on Hispaniola in 1228 CE and had come with the intention of knocking the Romans off of the island. The CSA met the Legion for the first time in the Battle of Miraguana and using their musket technology, which the Romans had never seen before, they completely wiped out anyone who didn't flee. Much to the chagrin of the Roman Army, Mayan armor was completely immune to their arrow and scorpio technology, and even when they could get up close, their swords were only slightly effective. To make matters worse, as soon as anyone made it even remotely close to the Mayan firing line, one of the soldiers pulled out a pistol and shot the enemy soldier at near point blank range. If the Romans were going to win they'd need another tactic, or even better, some new technology.
The Romans got their wish in 1231 when some military scientists back home designed the perfect bow, an 88 cm composite bow which had nearly twice the power of the standard composite bows used by archers. Although horse archers couldn't be equipped with the new longarquus, the Empire spent the next 7 years equipped every single Roman foot archer, even ones which weren't in Columbia, with the weapon. The first chance to test the longarquus came in 1233 in the First Battle of Centerpoint Station.
At the battle 72,000 Mayan Infantrymen, 3,600 double-barreled cannons and 36 Bombards were moving to take the Roman star fort at the island's center, which was itself defended by 25,600 Legionaries, 19,200 Longbow Archers, 1,200 Celeballista, 50 Magna Ballista, and most importantly, 20 Testudos. The Roman Army caught the Mayans completely unaware and managed to kill about 7,000 of them in the first minute of the battle, after that the entire affair devolved into disorganized combat between Mayan infantry and Roman infantry, with one-on-one combat deciding the fate of the battle. With better artillery support, and the better training that Legionaries got in hand-to-hand combat, the Romans emerged victorious, albeit with only a quarter of their army still standing. Still, they managed to kill 50,000 enemy soldiers and even captured half a dozen of them, so the Roman government considered it a success.
For the time being, the Mayans knew they had to take the fortress before moving on, or risk a later attack on their rear, and so began training their soldiers in the tactics of siege warfare used by Gu'ian 40 years ago. In 1242 a similarly sized force was sent to try to capture Centerpoint again. This time the Romans however tried to defend themselves from inside the walls of the fortress, a risky move considering Roman analysts predicted that the Mayan calanum were probably able to destroy the defensive walls. However, a vote had been taken and most soldiers agreed that if this battle could prove that the cannons actually couldn't destroy their walls, than thousands of Roman lives could be saved in the future.
The gamble succeeded, sort of, the Mayan double-barreled cannons were useless against the heavy stone and concrete of the star forts, but Bombards, which were enormous cannons firing 600 kg projectiles, managed to gradually take off large chunks of the wall, eventually breaking a whole big enough for an army to get through. The catch though was that this was exactly what the Roman Generals secretly expected. The Mayans were now in close quarters where the Legionaries had the advantage and archers could fire down on them from the ramparts. They were once again forced to retreat whilst the Romans resisted chasing them so that they could rebuild and prepare for the next attack.
...trouble was brewing. A Mongolian child was born to a barely known chieftain of a tribe on the Mongol Steppes in 1162, his name was Borjigin Temujin. Temujin was very strong of character, and had no qualms in doing what was best for both himself and his tribe, no matter what the cost was. After the Tatars killed his father and his own tribe abandoned the rest of his family, Temujin grew to be a cold individual and took the position of family patriarch after killing his own brother Bekhter in an argument over hunting spoils. He married at the late age of 16 to his lifelong partner Börte, and only 4 years later, was himself captured as a slave by the Bjartskular. Three years later his own wife was almost captured by the Merkits but after reputedly killing the kidnapper with a stone from the ground, the other members of his tribe were able to arrive and drive off the rest of the attackers. Sympathetic to his cause, his ally Ong Khan of the Kerait tribe offered him 20,000 soldiers to take revenge on the Merkit settlement which had led the attack. After another ally, his blood-brother Jamuka of the Jadaran tribe came to his aid as well, the three tribes together wiped the settlement from existence. This solidified what was later a very important alliance.
Nine months later his first son, Jochi, was born and he was at last assured the security of an heir and he now had even more confidence in his future goal to unite the Mongol Tribes. Temujin's way of integrating defeated enemies rather than destroying them and of giving political positions based on merit over family ties ensured that the foundation of the nation he was building was going to be a strong one. However, Ong Khan's son, Senggum was jealous of Temujin and even managed to convince his father to turn against his former ally. Shockingly, even Jamuka helped in Senggum's plot, but it was all for nothing. Large portions of the "rebels" defected to Temujin's side and within a short time they were defeated by the growing Confederation. Though Jamuka escaped to the Naiman Tribes, he was eventually betrayed to Temujin by his own men in 1206.
After Temujin had killed the men who betrayed Jamuka, he offered his former blood brother one last chance at friendship. Jamuka refused and said that "there can only be one Sun in the sky" after which he requested only that he be granted an honorable death. It was that year though that Temujin finally completed his union of all the Mongolian Tribes and in a Khurultai, was declared Genghis Khan, the Universal Leader.
Genghis Khan and his most trusted general, Subutai, immediately began to expand his domain. The Western Xia Dynasty was defeated in 1210, thereby leaving the enormous Song Dynasty as the only remaining Chinese State as it had just finished its conquest of the Jin that same year. Before inciting the last nation of China, Genghis Khan needed to take care of the Kara-Khitai Khanate where the rest of the Naiman Confederation had fled. He sent four tumen (40,000 soldiers) under his son Jochi who effectively conquered the last Khanate by 1214. The Caliph (Emperor) of the Seljuk Turkish Empire, which was having its own internal difficulties, was ecstatic when the Great Khan sent a 500 man caravan to establish peaceful trading ties with his kingdom, and immediately reciprocated with a caravan of almost a ton of gold. Genghis Khan was pleased with this developed and now set his sites on the old tormentors of the Mongols, the Chinese.
The Song, who were now settling into peace after their conquest of the Jin, were completely unprepared for an army of "barbarians" storming into their territory in 1215 CE. Genghis Khan had brought 34 tumen (340,000 soldiers) to the war, the largest army he ever fielded and the official 1st Golden Horde. Within a year the Song started to put up an effective resistance, with the advantage of some Roman artillery pieces, but the power of the Mongol Hordes became too much for them and by 1226, the very last Chinese city fell into Mongol control. Meanwhile, in 1218, Jochi was named as the sole successor to the empire that Genghis was creating, and his other three sons were given very prominent positions as well.
In 1227 Genghis Khan called the Mongol and Chinese elite together to settle the issue of governance. Showing remarkable clarity and tolerance, he allowed the Chinese aristocracy to continue controlling their territories, at the condition that he "reorganize" things a little bit, and that they were wholly subservient to the Great Khans. Then, 10 members of the Mongol elite, including one of his sons, were named as the Ten Great Khans and became governors for 10 non-Chinese territories in his empire which he called Khanates. They were also given control over four tumen each, whilst the federal government had 20 of its own. For the time being, the Mongol capital became Bianjing, the former Song capital, though he had plans to found his own city, a proper establishment for Mongolian rule. Unfortunately Genghis died in 1232, inevitably leaving the throne to Jochi, now known as Gur-gri Khan. Most importantly though, Gur-gri posthumously declared his father as Khagan, the Khan of Khans or Emperor. Of course, this meant that he was the next Khagan, and so the position became the official title for ruler of the Dai Ön Ulus, Mongol World Empire.
Following in the footsteps of his father, Jochi worked hard to keep his empire united and keep the population satisfied. The best way to do this of course, was through war, war to the West.
|Early Golden Age:|
1892 (1139)-1948 (1195)
|Magnus the Great:|
1948 (1195)-2000 (1247)
|Two Hundred Years War:|
2000 (1247)-2029 (1276)