Alternate History

1100-1199 (The Kalmar Union)

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Vinland- An earthwork wall (Eikveggur) is raised across the narrow point of Eikland to protect against Suderfolk raids. Eikland beyond is divided into 17 counties and largely settled by the 1120s.


Harald IV Denmark (The Kalmar Union)

Harald IV Kesja, King of Denmark (1103-1135)

West Scandinavia - Eric I dies on pilgrimage to the Holy Land.

Harald IV Kesja succeeds him - but only just - he defeats Niels I in a close battle. The battle ensures the division of the Estridsson kingdoms as Harald has his cousins and uncles promise they will have no designs on Denmark and he will have no designs on any land as long as an Estridsson rules it.

Ireland- Magnus II Barefoot campaigns in Ireland. Receives several kings' fealty and reaffirms Dublin's independent status defeating the king of Munster in battle. His activities leaves Dublin in an awkward state - who are their ultimate overlords - the king of Leinister or of Hordaland?


Vinland - A peace with the nearest tribe of Suderfolk is arranged. Thorey I meets the King of the Passamaquoddy on Kyreyja, gives him a horse as a gift.

Cluniac monks set up the twin monasteries of St Peter & St Michael on the islands to the south of Vinland (OTL St Pierre & Miquelon). There they begin to experiment with the local crops as provided by Skraeling traders. They send 2 representatives to the Althing.

Aragon - Peter I dies. He is succeeded by Alfonso I.


Svealand- Inge I the Elder dies. Succeeded by Philip of Svealand.

Hordaland- Magnus II Barefoot dies invading Svealand which he has claim to via marriage. His three legitimate sons divide the Hordaland estates between them to avoid conflict.
Sigurd I takes the throne in Mann and Orkney while also claiming High King of Ireland.
Eystein I takes all of Hordaland (until the third brother Olaf reaches majority).


Holy Land - Sigurd I leads a joint Norwegian army on crusade finally returning, successful, in 1111.


France - Philip I dies. He is succeeded by Louis VI.



Leifia - The Passamaquoddy conquer their neighbours with Vinlandic help. In return Halfdan is given Konunglegursaey (OTL Ile d'Orleans) and nominal control of the Passamaquoddy coast to prevent sea-raids from further North.


Hordaland- Eystein I dies. He has created a stable and prosperous Hordaland with strong ties to the Estridsson kingdoms. Sigurd I the Crusader takes control of Hordaland but apparently has more time for The Isles allowing the Earl of Lade much more freedom.

Gothenland - With the Gothenlandic nobles rebelling, Hakan dies. His son Halsten probably takes over but the sources are unclear and in all likelihood anarchy descends over the kingdom.


Sneadis I (The Kalmar Union)

Snaedis I, Queen of Vinland (1116-1131)

Vinland - Thorey I dies. Her grand-niece Snaedis I (Halfdan's granddaughter) is crowned 'Queen of Vinland, Markland, Eikland and Magna Leifia'.


Vinland - Snaedis I gives birth to twin daughters.


Svealand- Philip of Svealand dies. Succeeded by his brother Inge II the Younger.


Low Countries - Charles I of Anglia becomes Count of Flanders but is immediately outlawed by the King of France, Louis VI, who promotes the Erembald family in power there.

Leifia - The Wampanoag destroy Vinlandic settlements on the islands of Sudervik. Beginning of the First Wampanoag War.



Denmark- Harald succeeds in obtaining an archbishopric for Denmark at Lund throwing off Bremen and the Holy Roman Empire's influence. Cnut IV is canonised.

Vinland - Wampanoags are defeated at the Eikveggur despite their overwhelming numbers. Earl Halfdan dies the following day from his wounds and the Vinlanders do not follow up the retreating Wampanoags.


Low Countries - Charles defeats the Erembald with a joint Anglian/Mann/Danish army and marches on Paris. He is brought to a halt by a Norman/French army. Louis and Charles are reconciled but authority of the French king rarely intrudes in Flanders afterward.

Leifia - The Vinlandic explorer Bárður Álfarsson rounds Myrland and makes the first visit to the civilisations of Meso-Leifia.


Leifia- A joint Vinlandic, Passaquoddy, Algonquin and Abernaki force defeats the Northern Wampanoags. The Southern Wampanoags sue for peace. They cede the southern islands to Vinland and large numbers of Vinlanders move southward to occupy the best farmland in the new territories.


Svealand- Inge II dies. Niels I's son Magnus Nielsson is the next heir of Svealand.

Wessex - Edgar II dies after 73 years on the Wessex throne. Both of his sons predeceased him so his grandson Henry I succeeds. Henry's mother Adela is Norman and introduces a Norman-French influence in court while Henry is yet to reach majority.


Leifia- The Algonquins on the mainland opposite Konunglegursaey convert to Christianity. Chronicles first mention their town at Quebec as being the main trading place for furs. Second Wampanoag War (or the Wampanoag Crusade) begins. Passamquoddy scouts are killed by Wampanoags. The Wampanoag generally rebel against their neighbours. Vinlanders abandon Sudervik again.


Gothenland - Sverker succeeds in getting himself crowned mainly ending the anarchy that has plagued Gothenland for a decade.


Álengiamark- The long drawn out Wampanoag Crusade results in Vinlanders taking the lands of the Southern Wampanoag and their Western allies. Passamaquoddy and Abernaki help settle and pacify the new territory of Álengiamark. The town of St Hafdiss (OTL New Haven) is raised and, due to its distance from Isafjordhur, an Althing set up. Álengiamark is divided into 44 counties. 16 Norse, two Cornish, seven Quiripi, six Pequot, five Mohegan and eight Wampanoag.

The Wampanoag, Quiripi and Pequot are baptised en masse.



East Scandinavia - Svealand revolts. Magnus I Nielsson is deposed. The Gothenlandic king Sverker I is made king of Svealand, as a personal union only, as per tradition. To makes things worse, Magnus's stepmother Ulvhild runs away from Niels and marries Sverker.

Hordaland- Sigurd I the Crusader dies. His illegitimate son Magnus IV Sigurdsson is crowned, with support from Denmark. However, numerous counter-claimants abound.

His beloved daughter Kristin is sent to live with one of the joint Earls of Orkney, Haakon Paulsson. Mann reverts back to its old dynasty but recognises Hordaland's overlordship.

Cnut III Anglia (The Kalmar Union)

Cnut III, King of Anglia (1130-1161)

Anglia - Charles I dies. His son Canute III inherits both Anglia and Flanders. Charles's eldest daughter is married to the Duke of Aquitaine. His youngest daughter is married to the King of Navarre.


Vinland- Snaedis I dies.

The Heirs of Snaedis I
Queen of Vinland (1131-1142) Queen of Álengiamark (1131-1155)
Hafdis II Vin (The Kalmar Union) Elisiv (The Kalmar Union)
Hafdis II Elisiv

Hafdis II is crowned Queen of Vinland, Eikland and Markland. Elisiv is crowned Queen of Álengiamark and Magna Leifia (The Magna Leifia title is meant to make up for lack of population and the lack of natural defensive borders, though in actuality means little).


Aragon - Alfonso I dies. He leaves the crown of Aragon to religious orders but his nobility ignore his wishes and elect Ramiro II.


Bjorn I Denmark (The Kalmar Union)

Bjorn I, King of Denmark (1135-1146)

Denmark- Harald IV Kesja dies.

Bjorn I Ironside succeeds him but many of his nobles chose to elect Cnut Lavard instead. The two kings will spend four years attempting to seize the throne.

Tawantinland - Vinlandic explorers hugging the coast reach Tawantinland.


Viken- Niels I dies. Magnus (II) Nielsson is crowned in Viken. He begins plans to reconquer Svealand. Magnus I is later reconciled to Sverker I when his daughter Helena marries Magnus's son Canute.

Leifia- Third Wampanoag War. The King of the Passamaquoddy dies without a clear heir leaving the Northern Wampanoag free to march on Quispamis. The siege is lifted by Elisiv (sources record her actually leading troops into battle on horseback wielding a mace). Elisiv and Hafdis II are present at the coronation of the new king. The Passamaquoddy alliance is strengthened by marriage between Elisiv and Hadfis's brother and the new king's daughter.

Aragon - Ramiro II abdicates in favour of his daughter Petronilla. She is married to Ramon Berengar IV of Barcelona and he de facto rules Aragon in union with his own county.

France - Louis VI dies. He is succeeded by Philip II.


Hordaland- Magnus IV Sigurdsson dies invading Gothenland with his brother-in-law Magnus I Nielsson. The land is divided into 3 with Sigurd II, Inge and Eystein II all ruling and eventually fighting over the kingdom. Dominion over The Isles gradually falls away.

Portugal - Portugal declares its independence from Leon.

Denmark - Cnut Lavard loses favour at the Holy Roman court and as such is subjected to increased raids from the Obodtrite Slavs which soon forces him to flee. Bjorn I takes full control of Denmark.



Viken- Magnus I Nielsson dies. Canute III succeeds in Viken.


Asdis I Vin (The Kalmar Union)

Asdis I, Queen of Vinland (1142)

Rus' - Svealandic raiders make the first forays into Novgorod.

Orkney - Kristin marries Harald Maddadsson (despite both of them being minors) linking Caithness to Orkney and ultimately to Hordaland.

Iofridr (The Kalmar Union)

Iofridr, Queen of Vinland (1142-1202)

Vinland- The year of three queens.

Hafdis II dies in childbirth. Her younger sister Asdis I is crowned as her niece is too young. But she too dies later in the year. Elisiv confirms she will protect her three-year old niece and Iofridr I is crowned. The Earl of Gudridsaeyjar acts as regent and is generally remembered as benevolent. Ingolfurseyers find silver in Northern Passamaquoddy territory.


Leifia - Vinlandic traders bring various foodstuffs from the lands to the south to the North Eastern Queendoms including the potato, squash, Ishtak birds (OTL Turkeys) and dried chili. While potatoes and squashes soon spread amongst the farming communities, chili becomes worth its weight in gold.

France - Philip II leaves France to go on the Second Crusade. His young son Robert III is crowned co-king.


Canute V Denmark (The Kalmar Union)

Cnut V, King of Denmark (1146-1157)

Denmark- Bjorn I dies.

His cousin Canute V Lavard succeeds him though is challenged by Cnut III of Viken. His previous position as Duke of Schleswig allows him to extend Denmark's possessions southward but only pushes the country farther into the orbit of the Holy Roman Empire.


France - Robert III dies of dysentery. His sister Adele is crowned co-ruler of France but her coronation is widely opposed.


Orkney - Harald Maddadsson becomes sole Earl of Orkney after defeating and killing his rivals. His rule is long but mired in a deep dispute between his lands and their nominal overlords, Scotland and Hordaland. Generally Harald supports any and all of the King of Scotland's enemies.

Holy Land - Philip II of France is killed during the abortive Siege of Damascus. His daughter Adele is now sole ruler of France. She is opposed by her cousin Simon.



France - Simon seizes Paris and momentarily driving Adele out, assumes the mantle of King of Francia.


Álengiamark - Elisiv dies. Dogg is crowned.


East Scandinavia - Sverker I is murdered by Magnus Henriksson. Sverker's rival Eric VI is crowned king of Svealand. Gothenland passes to Karl I Sverkersson.

France - Simon is deposed by the Queen's army. Adele is reaffirmed as the rightful queen. Simon is killed in September at the Battle of Dreux. However, Adele dies in childbirth in December. Simon's son Robert IV is crowned king.


Valdemar I Denmark (The Kalmar Union)

Valdemar I, King of Denmark (1157-1182)

Denmark- Canute V dies.

Valdemar I succeeds him.


Denmark - Valdemar I defeats Canute III of Viken at the battle of Grathe, ensuring Scania remains Danish.



East Scandinavia - Eric VI of Svealand dies. Magnus II Henriksson, a distant but illegitimate relation of Sweyn II of Denmark, is crowned and promptly invades Gothenland in an attempt to cut off his rivals from help.


East Scandinavia - Magnus II dies in battle with Magnus I of Viken and of Karl I of Gothenland. Burislev Sverkersson is recognised as king of Svealand, defeating and executing several rivals from the House of Eric.

Inge Haraldsson dies. He and his brothers have left a tangled web of claimants both at home and in exile in Svealand. Haakon IV the Broadshouldered succeeds.

Hordaland- Haakon Haraldsson, Kristin Sigurdsdatter's son, invades Hordaland with an army from Mann and Scotland. He quickly picks up support from Lade, Viken and Denmark who are tired of Hordaland's recent struggles.

Cnut IV Anglia (The Kalmar Union)

Cnut IV, King of Anglia (1161-1191)

Anglia - Canute III of Anglia-Flanders dies. Canute IV succeeds him.


Hordaland- Haakon IV is defeated by Haakon Haraldsson at the battle of Bergen. Haakon V Haraldsson is proclaimed king of Hordaland. With his allies he either kills or receives submission from all of his rivals.


Aragon - Petronilla abdicates in favour of her son Alfonso II who combines the Kingdom of Aragon and the County of Barcelona.


Álengiamark - Dogg dies. Her sister Elin I is crowned.


Svealand- Burislev dies after extending Svealand's rule to the Aland Islands. Kol Sverkersson is crowned.



Wessex - Henry I dies. Succeeded by his son Edmund III who again, is heavily invested in Normandy. One of his first acts is to send Wessex troops to help Normandy conquer Maine. However, the troops are ill-disciplined and the intervention only stirs up bitterness with France.

France - Robert IV dies. His son Louis VII is pushed to take a harder line with Wessex.



Cnut I, King of Svealand (1173-1196)

Svealand- Kol Sverkersson dies. The last remaining House of Eric claimant Cnut I Eriksson is accepted by the Svealand nobles and crowned. To soothe Danish relations he marries Elisiv of Denmark Both Denmark and Viken uphold his right to rule and restrain the Sverkerssons in Gothenland.


Viken- Canute III of Viken dies. Succeeded by Niels II.

Wessex - Edmund III is forced by his nobles to accept a humiliating reconciliation with France.


Gothenland- Karl I Sverkersson dies. Sverker II is crowned.



France - Louis VII dies. His brother Charles IV succeeds. Eager to get out of his brother's shadow he invades Flanders in the beginning of a plan to curb his over-mighty vassals. He is held by the Flemish army, and the siege of Ghent is lifted by an arriving Anglian army with Canute IV at its head.


Cnut VI Den (The Kalmar Union)

Canute VI, King of Denmark (1182-1202)

Denmark- Valdemar I dies.

He has extended Danish power to Pomerania and the Wends but falls short of Christianising them. He is succeeded by Cnut VI.

Álengiamark- Elin I dies. She has no children and no clear heir. Álengiamark threatens to descend into civil war. The Althing at St Hafidss petitions Isafjordhur for mediation. It picks Elin II (Elin I's second niece). Elin's brother the Earl of Margirhaedeyja (OTL Manhattan Island) begins to look toward the west for possible expansion, asking the Althing for excessive taxes, and tries to ferment trouble on the border between Álengiamark and the Unami.

France - Paris is besieged by Flemish and Brabant forces while Orleans is ravaged by Sancerre. Maine revolts against Normandy.


Britannia - Anglia is invaded by Wessex forces, in an attempt to aid their Norman and French allies. Cnut IV sells the Earldom of Lancaster to his brother-in-law, Haraldr of Man to raise much-needed funds and free up his forces from quelling the rebellion there. Lincoln is besieged but pressure from Man and Orkney on Wessex means it fails. London falls, however.

Álengiamark- Álengiamark Civil War. The Earl of Margirhaedeyja's heavy handed tactics ostracise the Earl of Langaeyjar. With help from the Eastern Isles he moves his own daughter Thorey I (Elin I's third niece) to the throne. Elin II goes into exile with the Passamaquoddy.


Denmark- Emperor Frederick demands Cnut VI acknowledge him as overlord of Denmark but Cnut refuses. As a result Denmark is invaded by Pomerania. The invasion is defeated, however.

France - Normandy switches sides with the death of its duke. Paris finally falls. By the Treaty of Compiegne France directly under the French king is reduced once more to the Ile de Paris and Orleanais. The territory of Flanders, Normandy, Maine and Sancerre are all restored. While many Counties and Duchies continue to pay fealty to the French king, most of the North is lost for now. Anglia accepts the loss of London but is paid a substantial premium for it.

Álengiamark - Thorey is in turn deposed by the Earl of Sudervik and his daughter Asthudur I. Thorey goes into exile in Iceland.


Pomerania- Pomerania is invaded and subjected to Danish rule, pulling it out of the German sphere. Canute marries Count Bugislaw's daughter cementing the Danish hold. A separate Sorbian dukedom to the south is fostered as a further bulwark.

Viken- Niels II dies. His cousin, the future Harold III of Anglia, is briefly considered by the nobles to succeed. Instead his half-sister Hildegard of Rugia succeeds in Viken. The local Viken lords do not want an over-mighty king getting in their way. The Ranish of Rugia have only just converted to Christianity but are nominal Danish subjects. They have already been inviting many Gothenlanders to settle on their island.

Britannia - The armies of Man are pushed out of Mercia.


Svealand - Cnut I Eriksson builds a castle at Stockholm to hold the Svealand coast against Baltic raids.


Viken- Under pressure, Hildegard abdicates in favour of her eight year old son Wizlaw I. He is quite happy for the Viken lords to exercise power at home but uses Viken's resources to build up the Principality of Rugia. He assists Denmark in their attempts to pacify and control Pomerania. The new abbey of Bergen becomes a respected centre of learning and gives it a bit of leeway when dealing with church v state matters. During his long reign Rugia triples in size as it takes portions of mainland Pomerania.

Wessex - Edmund III dies. Succeeded by his daughter Matilda I.

Álengiamark- Asthudur I dies. Elin II is recalled and crowned once more. A reconciliation between Langaeyjar and Sudervik is brokered. The Earl of Kyreyjar travels to Denmark (taking his cousin Thorey I of Álengiamark to the court to argue her case). There he joins the 3rd Crusade.



Harold III Anglia (The Kalmar Union)

Harold III, King of Anglia (1191-1212)

Anglia - Canute IV dies. Succeeded by Harold III.

Holy Land - Acre falls to German crusaders. The leaders of the crusade fall out over who exactly should receive the title of King of Jerusalem, largely hobbling their ability to conduct the war.


Cyprus - The future King Charles II of Anglia allies with William II of Sicily and conquers Cyprus, removing the tyrannical Byzantine ruler.


Byzantine Empire - Charles of Anglia is captured by Byzantine forces and imprisoned. The vast sum demanded in ransom is dismissed by Harold III and he will be held for five years.


Birger Brosa

John I, King of Svealand (1196-1212)

Svealand- Cnut I Eriksson dies. John I Knutsson is crowned king of Svealand. He devotes much of his energy promoting his grandfather Eric VI as a saint.

Aragon - Alfonso II dies. He is succeeded by his son Peter II.


Saaremaa - Canute VI crusades in Estonia. An often besieged dukedom is setup on the island of Osel under Canute's nephew Magnus.

Leifia- The Leifian Civil War. Elin II dies and with no other legitimate heirs the crown reverts to Iofridr. St Hafdiss rebels and chooses half-Quiripi princess Yrsa I as their queen. Iofridr's armies slowly advance (using some of the tactics the Earl of Kyreyjar has picked up in Europe and Palestine) and defeat Yrsa I's forces. However, it is hard going. The tribes that make up Álengiamark's Skraeling population generally support Yrsa and are adept at using the terrain. The Passamaquoddy offer no help, they are unwilling to see a unified state on both their eastern and southern borders. They are lucky to get away without being invaded.


North Atlantic - Haakon V Haraldsson's rule is accepted in the Faroe Islands, but they retain the right to elect their own Thing.

Wessex - Matilda I marries Theobold VI of Blois and they rule together.


Leifia- Yrsa I is captured and executed. Iofridr is finally crowned in St Hafdiss. Very limited attempts to unify the queendoms are made and are eventually abandoned in the threat of another civil war. Iofridr promises to split the realm and sends her older daughter Eydis to be her regent.

The Kalmar Union Timelines
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