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Alternate History

0-100 CE (Age of Glory)

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69-75 CE~822-828 AUC

Europe

  • After the death of Nero, the Roman Empire experienced a civil war, the Year of Four Emperors . The civil war started on January 1st, 69 CE after the equally tyrannical Galba was assassinated by the Senate of Rome . Legions in Germania declared Aulus Vitellius Emperor, while Marcus Salvius Otho was proclaimed Emperor by the Senate. Rome descended further into chaos, and the legions in Egypt declared the general Vespasian as their Emperor. However, neither side was able to emerge victorious, and the empire split into the Latin Empire of OthoGallic Empire of Vitellius, and the Hellenic Empire of Vespasian. (POD)
  • Rome loses control of the territories east of the Rhine and north of the western Danube. However, Vitellius manages to vassalize many of the tribes that swoop in to take advantage of the situation; most notably the Franks, Frisians and Suevi. (ATL)

70 CE~823 AUC

Europe

  • Vespasian makes Alexandria the temporary Hellenic capital. (ATL)
  • Grain shipments are delayed by adverse trade winds, causing mass panic throughout the Latin EmpireOtho  than ordered the construction of vast swaths of farmland in the Po Valley and Sicily to compensate. This measure was also taken to ensure Rome's survival in case she lost her African provinces. (ATL)
  • Pliny the Elder serves as Procurator in Achaea. (ATL)
  • April 14th-August 4th-Great Jewish Revolt: Vespasian and Titus's forces besiege and capture Jerusalem, which had been rebelling against the Roman Empire due to religious persecution. Titus decides against razing the Temple of Solomon due to the influence of his lover, Queen Berenice. However, he does loot it and much of the city, destroying several other key installations. (ATL)
  • Neapolis (present day Nablus) is founded in Judaea Province. (OTL)
  • Batavians revolt along the Rhine. Several Roman legions are destroyed by the Batavii, but the rebellion is put down. (OTL)
  • Vitellius disbanded four Rhine legions (I Germanica, IIII Macedonica, XV Primigenia and XVI Gallica), disgraced for having surrendered or lost their eagles during the revolt of Julius Civilis. (ATL)
  • Vitellius disbands the Praetorian Guard, and replaces it with the Parisian Guard. (ATL)
  • Later Hellenic Emperor Domitian marries Domitiana Longina. (OTL)
  • Latin forces vassalize the Garamantes of Libya. (OTL)
  • Hellenes annex Samothrace. (OTL)
  • Famed inventor Hero of Alexandria dies. (OTL)

Asia

  • The Hellenistic Dynasties end in India. (OTL)

71 CE~824 AUC

Europe

  • Vitellius orders the construction of a major fort at Eboracum (York), as well as public baths, temples, and housing. Eboracum rises as an important centre in Britannia. (OTL)
  • Quintus Petillius Cerialus, Governor of Britannia, puts down a revolt led by the Brigantes. (OTL)
  • Gauls defeat another Batavian revolt. (ATL)
  • April-June-Failed invasion of Latin-held Hispania by Vitellius. (ATL)
  • July-September-Invasion of southern Gaul by Neronis leads to a stalemate. (ATL)
  • Locks with keys of complex design are invented in Rome. (OTL)
  • Mithraism begins to spread, (OTL)

Asia

  • Reign of Rabel II, king of Nabataea. He makes Bostra, Syria his secondary capital. (OTL)

72 CE~825 AUC

Europe

  • Latium and Gallia sign an armistice. However, they refuse to recognize each other as the rulers of Rome. (ATL)
  • The construction of the Colosseum in Rome is begun. (OTL)
  • Hellenes annexes Syria, deposing Antiochus IV. (OTL)
  • Hellenic forces besiege and captures the Illyrian cities of Salona and Epidaurum, conquering Illyria. (ATL)
  • Thomas the Apostle dies, (OTL)

73 CE~826 AUC

Europe

  • Pliny the Elder serves as Procurator of Asia. (ATL)
  • Titus is elected Roman Consul. (OTL)
  • Vespasian begins a series of expansions into Dacia and Pannonia, subjugating the tribes there and establishing the Dacians as vassals. (ATL)
  • Martial writes a satire on military cowardice. (OTL)

Asia

  • February – The Chinese Han Dynasty launches a major campaign against the Xiongnu, whom they confront in the Battle of Yiwulu in the Kumulo asis, an ultimate Han military victory led by General Dou Gu. (OTL)

74 CE~827 AUC

Europe

  • Gallia begins a series of campaigns in northern Britain. (ATL)
  • Gallia vassalizes the Saxons, Lombards, Bavarians. (ATL)
  • Battle of Aquileia - Hellenic siege of Aquileia is thwarted, ending Vespasian's expanse into Italy. (ATL)

Asia

  • The Chinese re-establish protectorates in Xinjiang. (OTL)

Middle East

  • The last known cuneiform text is written in Mesopotamia. (OTL)

75 CE~828 AUC

Europe

  • Neronis designates Marcus Cocceius Nerva as his successor. (ATL)
  • October 13th - Vitellius dies in Parisia. His son Germanicus ascends the throne. (ATL)
  • Temple of Peace constructed in Alexandria. It celebrates the victory of Vespasian and Titus over the Jewish Zealots in the Great Jewish Revolt and houses the menorah from the Temple of Solomon. (ATL)
  • The Governor of Britain, Sextus Julius Frontinus, makes Eboracum the capital of the province. (ATL)
  • Caerwent is founded as the small market town of Venta Silurum. (OTL)

Middle East

  • Parso-Armenian forces cross the Euphrates and besiege Melitene, causing Vespasian to sign an armistice with Vitellius II and Otho. Start of the Third Roman-Persian War. Melitene would be captured and razed by the end of the year. (OTL)
  • The Alans begin raids of the Parso-Roman frontier. (OTL)
  • April - Samosata and Zeugmas fall to united Armenian and Persian forces. Persia is repelled at Satala. (ATL)

Asia

  • Accession of Han Zhangdi as Chinese Emperor. (OTL)
  • Revolts in Chinese Xinjiang are suppressed by general Ban Chao. Major Xiongnu invasions cause much chaos in the area. (OTL)

76 CE~829 AUC

Europe

  • Governor Sextus Julius Frontinus subdues hostile Cumbrish tribes, establishing a fortress at Isca Augusta (Caerleon) for Legio II Augusta and constructs a number of smaller forts for his auxillary forces. (OTL)
  • Germanicus annexs all territory west of the Rhine, infuriating the displaced locals. However, before he had a rebellion on his hands, he makes a deal with the Gallic vassals to expand their territory eastward, at the expense of the Burgundians. (ATL)

Middle East

  • March - Battle of Palmyra - Hellenic forces ambush Persia's main army at the oasis city of Palmyra, becoming one of the principal battles of the war, and a subject of epic poetry for centuries to come. (ATL)
  • Hellenic forces begin a siege of Daroynk, the last major city under Armenian control. (ATL)

77 CE~830 AUC

Europe

  • Gnaeus Julius Agricola is appointed governor of Britannia, a post he will hold until 84. He extends Roman control over Scotland, and is famous for annihilating a 30'000 strong resistance at the Great Glen. (ATL)
  • Cumbrian tribes in Cumberland resisting Gaulish authority retreat to Anglesey after a small number of battles with Agricola devastate the Ordovices. (ATL)
  • Caledoni chieftain Calgacus unites the Caledoni under a 30'000 strong army to resist Roman expansion into southern Scotland. (OTL)
  • A Gallic squadron is murdered on the Clyde by the Caledonians while mapping northern Scotland, prompting Emperor Germanicus to send newly-appointed Governor Agricola to pacifiy the locals. (ATL)
  • Pliny the Elder publishes his first ten books of the Naturalis Historia. (OTL)
  • Romans develop a method of distillation, supposedly invented in Sicily. (OTL)

Middle East

  • Summer - Siege of Garonca-Hellenic forces storm the Armenian capital and depose the king, annexing the kingdom. The Bagratuni flee to the Caucasian Iberian kingdom. Celebrations break out empire-wide. (ATL)
  • Winter - Persian forces under the personal command of future king Pacorus II besiege Jerusalem. The army escaped detection by travelling through neutral Nebataea and encamping in caves in Galilee. (ATL)

Asia

  • King Giru succeeds to King Daru of Baekje. (OTL)

78 CE~831 AUC

Europe

  • Battle of the Great Glen - Agricola's legions destroy a force of 30'000 Caledonian warriors under Calgacus, destroying the Caledonian kingdom and executing their leader, allowing for complete Roman control over Britain. The Battle of the Great Glen will be used in future literature as an allegory for tyrannical pacification of resistance, and a rallying call for Celtic nationalism. (ATL)
  • With the threat in Britain pacified, Germanicus leads his veteran legions across the Alps to claim his birthright as Roman Emperor. (ATL)
  • Summer - Battle of Turin - Because Neronis hadn't thought Gallia to be a threat, too wrapped up in British affairs, Neronis's legions face a stunning defeat at the hands of Germanicus, causing mass panic throughout Italy. Memories of Hannibal's violation of Italy still haunt the Roman populace, leading to mass revolt. However, Neronis turns this apparent defeat into a rallying call, mass-conscripting the world's first known civilian army. Estimates of the exact size of the Exercitus Civilus vary between 300'000 and a million. (ATL)

Middle East

  • Siege of Jerusalem - Hellenic forces triumphantly force the Persians from Palestine into Nebataea after an exhausting year-long siege. (ATL)
  • Hellenic forces raise Petra, capital of the Nebataeans, as punishment for allowing the Persians free passage, ending the Nebataean kingdom. (ATL)
  • Spring-Battle of Nisibis-Hellenic forces capture the key Persian city of Nisibis, prompting the Persians to sue for peace. (ATL)

Asia

  • Indian Prince Aji Caka introduces the Sanskrit language and Pallawa script, used to inscribe Javanese words and phrases, to the Indonesian islands. (OTL)
  • This is the base year (year zero) of the Saka era used by some Hindu calendars, the Indian national calendar, and the Cambodian Buddhist calendar. It begins near the vernal equinox for the civil solar calendar, but begins opposite the star Spica for the traditional solar calendar. (OTL)
  • Kanishka reigns over the Tocharian Empire of Kusana (Afghanistan and Northern India). He is a renowned conqueror and wise administrator. (OTL).
  • Pacorus II succeeds Vologases I of Persia. (OTL)
  • The philosopher Wang Chong claims all phenomena have material causes. (OTL)

79 CE~832 AUC

Europe

  • After a series of major defeats in the Alps, and at Ginevra (Geneva), Gallia and Latium sign another armistice. (ATL)
  • Because of recent Gallic military defeats, loss of land and rising unpopularity of Emperor Germanicus, Burgundian forces cross the Rhine, causing mass panic throughout Gaul. (ATL)
  • Hellenic Emperor Vespasian dies with the famous parting words "I think I'm becoming a God.", his son Titus succeeds him. Scandal rocks the empire as Titus's lover Berenice, Queen of Judea, is crowned Veronica, Roman Empress. (ATL) 
  • Emperor Neronis dedicates the Roman Colosseum. (ATL)
  • Chester is founded as a Gallic fort under the name Deva Victrix. The fortress is built by Legio II Adiutrix and contains barracks, granaries, military baths, and headquarters. (OTL)
  • Northern Scotland, including the Orkney and Hebride Islands, are finally mapped by a Gallic expedition. (ATL)
  • Agricola founds Mamucium (Manchester), as a frontier fort for policing the boundary between Britannia and the vassal Caledonian kingdom. (ATL)
  • August 24th - Mount Vesuvius erupts, destroying Pompeii, Herculaneum, Stabiae, and Oplontis. Roman fleets stationed in the area are able to rescue survivors, but unfortunately celebrated poet Caesius Bassus was killed in the blast. (OTL)
  • Autumn-Burgundian devastation of Suebia and Francia, as well as a Rhine crossing, lead to the Gauls ceding Transjurania to form Burgundia, at the expense of Suebia. They are forced to pay homage to the Emperor, while maintaining the most independence of any one kingdom. (ATL)

Asia

  • A commision of scholars canonizes the texts of Kung Fu Tzi, known to the West as Confucius, and his school. (OTL)

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